Dec 302012

Hello everyone, today we are dedicating this post of our website to a burning, important and discussable topic, i.e. Women Violence. Yes, you read it correct, the topic about which we are going to discuss today is women violence.STOP VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN

While talking about the literary composition of  women violence, it is made up of two different words which are, ‘women’ and ‘violence’. These both words are quite familiar to us. The meaning of ‘women’ is females or feminine gender of human beings and the meaning of ‘violence’ is the act of exploiting and seizing the rights of anyone. Thus, the phrase ‘women violence’ refers to the act of exploiting and violating the rights of women.

These days, women violence has became a very common but important issue which is to be discussed thoroughly in an open manner. We already know that most of the societies of the present world are patriarchal. They are male dominant societies. In other words, we can even say that these societies are ruled by men rather than women. Gender equality is found very rarely in these societies. Due to this, domination of women by men is very common in these places. The women not only get physically tortured, but also get mentally harassed.

They get beaten, scolded and tortured by the patriarchal society. Many of them in developing and underdeveloped countries are accused of being witches and evil spirits and are even tortured by the whole society. They are beaten, burnt and even forced to eat human refuse, i.e. stool. Everyday, many wives get physically and mentally tortured by their husbands. They are even tortured in such a manner that they get forced to leave their lives.

There are many examples of these kinds of activities in the world. Not only that much, the women are also used as sexual slaves by the male dominant society. They are taken as weak ones and they are forced to be involved in undesired sexual activities. The number of rapes are increasing day by day. Many are even forced to work in prostitution or brothels.

A burning example of sexual harassment of women is the case of death of a 23 year old lady named Damini in the highly populated country of India. She was raped and then thrown away from a running bus by a group of six men. She was a medical student who was travelling in a bus with her male friend after watching a movie. Then the six men attacked both of them. Firstly the male friend was badly beaten. After that, Damini was raped severely and an iron rod was inserted to her body which resulted to severe injury in the lady’s body. Then both of them were stripped and thrown out of the running bus.

After this incident, the lady was moved to a hospital in Delhi. But due to severe injuries, she was moved to Mount Elizabeth Hospital of Singapore. Meanwhile, the people of India became too much angry and aggressive towards this act and they came out on the streets for protests. They even raised a question mark against the police, law and the whole government. She was kept in the hospital for altogether thirteen days but everything went in vain. The innocent lady left the world on the thirteenth day, i.e. 29th December, 2012. This is only one example of such events. But there are many incidents that are taking place everyday. Thousands of women are getting harassed everyday.

This shows the critical condition of women in our society. All these actions have raised a question mark against the government, laws, police, security provisions and even our society. Is this the justice? Can we say that the women are safe? The answers of these questions can be described in a single word ‘NO’. Though there are many organizations and people working in the upliftment of women and providing security, the security of women is not ensured properly. No one can give guarantee that women are totally safe in our society. Though there are strict laws and rules, there is no strict implementation of them. There are many people working in the upliftment of women, but they are not being able to be successful at all because of the less priority given by the patriarchal society in this matter.

So, the major cause of women violence can be taken as our patriarchal society which dominates women. Our society is responsible for all this violence. So, we, the members of this society must be awakened first. All the people in the society should be awared and informed about the importance of women in the society and effects of women violence in our society. The curriculum of the students should include the topics like women empowerment and they should be taught about its importance not only in theoretical manner but also in practical way. Similarly, women should be given equal priority in the society. They should be allowed to participate actively in family decisions as well as social activities. Likewise, the government and organizations must be active to work in this topic. Laws and rules should be created and even modified, if necessary. Not only that much, they should be implemented strictly from the ground level, i.e. individual level. Police should be active in such regions where there is much participation of women. There are many other steps that can be taken to minimize this severe disease of women violence which is destroying our society day by day.

But we should never forget that every thing takes time. Change needs time. So, we should never lose hope and we should have patience. We should always remember that nothing is impossible and be optimistic too. We are responsible people of the society, so we are the ones who can change the face of this society. And one day, the society will be better than we expect.

All the best everyone!

Dec 252012

The term bryophyta is derived from two Greek words (Bryon: Moss; phyton: plant). Bryophytes are the simplest group of first land-inhabiting plants that tend to grow best in permanently moist conditions. They are not well adapted to live on land as they lack vascular tissue. It includes liverworts, hornworts and mosses. Bryophytes are commonly known as “Amphibians of Plant Kingdom” because they require external water for fertilization and completion of life cycle. Bryophytes include about 960 genera and 24000 species. They are worldwide in distribution on most parts of the earth wherever there is sufficient moisture to sustain plant life.

The characters of plants lying in Bryophyta are:

  1. Bryophytes mostly grow in moist and shady places. Some species are aquatic e.g. Riella, Ricciocarpus natans and Riccia fluitans. Polytrichum and some other species grow in xerophytic conditions.
  2. The gametophyte bearing the reproductive organs is independent and long lived, while the sporophyte bearing the spores is dependent on the gametophyte and is short lived.
  3. The gametophytic plant body may be thallose (not differentiated into stem and leaf) or foliose (differentiated into rhizoids, stem and leaves).
  4. The vascular tissues are absent. The plant body consists of simple parechymatous cells.
  5. The thalli of primitive forms remain attached to the substratum by unicellular smooth walled or tuberculate rhizoids. However, in higher forms, the rhizoids are branched and multicellular.
  6. In some bryophytes multicellular scales are present, which provide protection to the growing point. For example, Riccia, Marchantia.
  7. Reproduction is brought about by vegetative and sexual means.
  8. Water is essential at the time of fertilization.
  9. The sporophyte of Riccia is very simple; consists of capsule only, whereas in other bryophytes it consists of foot, seta and capsule.
  10. The capsule contains sporogenous tissues which divide meiotically to form four haploid spores.
  11. Spore is the first cell of gametophytic generation, which on germination gives rise to gametophytic plant body.
  12. The life cycle of a bryophyte shows regular alternation of gametophytic and sporophytic generation.