Apr 232012
 

Human beings use natural resources like land, water, minerals while conducting  construction works, namely, drainage, canal, road etc. The activities like formation of new machines, experiments and research always go on. Various human activities adversely affects on biodiversity. People should play vital role on reducing such adverse effects and conservation of living beings.

The adverse effects on biodiversity and the methods to mitigate them may differ from place to place because of different geographical regions. There may be some similarity. Some measures to mitigate the effects are given below:

1. Degradation of Ecosystem
There are different types of living beings in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Cattle, birds, insects, plants and trees grow in the terrestrial ecosystem while fish, some insects, small plants live in the aquatic  ecosystem. The terrestrial ecosystem is degraded due to forest fire, destruction of the forest, use of insecticides and pesticides and construction of work. Aquatic ecosystem is spoil by falling stones and soil when construction work is done and by explosions. Adverse effects on water is caused when sewage mixes with water sources. Thus, the living beings both on land and in water are affected. Large mammals like tiger, elephant,  rhinoceros etc. require enough physical surroundings for their maintenance. But on account of degraded ecosystem, there is shortage of space for the living beings.

2. Loss of Habitat
Habitat plays a significant role in retaining biodiversity. Natural habitat is ruined because of human activities like construction work, expansion of agricultural work, excessive use of chemicals, destruction of forest etc. As a result, animal’s habitat, food-cycle, climate and reproduction progress are badly affected. The numerical growth of living beings and their life-style are hampered, and so there is decline in the ecosystem. Due to the loss of the habitat, there is struggle among the species for food and shelter. Consequently, the number of incompetent vegetation, animals and birds go on decreasing. Eventually many living beings vanish. Human beings too are affected.

It is wise to destroy the natural habitat while conducting development construction and human activities. The activities which has been destroyed should be restored. For example, trees should be planted in bare and uncultivated places. This will create the natural habitat for the living beings. Rivers, rivulets and other water resources should not be filled. They should be protected from filling stone and mud. Those places should be restored to the former natural forms.

3. Loss of Mobility
The deterioration of the natural environment causes the loss of mobility of animals and birds. The causes of the deterioration of the environment are the destruction of the forest, expansion of agricultural land and urbanization. All these factors limit the space for the animals and birds for roaming. That is why, the natural environment for the animals like tiger, elephant, deer, bird has diminished. In this situation, they have to stay within a limit area. So, people should not ruin the natural environment if they want to conserve the animals and birds. We should try to make the dry and  uncultivated land suitable for the habitat of animals.

4. Limitation of Expansion of Vegetation
Land for cultivation is extended due to population growth. Various types of development and construction work are continuing. Similarly, settlement areas are expanding and urbanization is taking place. Grazing land is declining in size. These activities are causing loss to the forest, vegetation, herbs etc. Because of these unsuitable effects, biodiversity is degrading. People should grow trees in the surrounding of their houses, either side of the road and bare fields. Pasture lands should not be damaged. Grass should be grown in the barren place for the cattle. Thus, the greenery can be increased.

Apr 232012
 

Biodiversity conservation is the conservation of all living beings-large or small. This conservation includes the conservation of their habitat, heredity and ecosystem. It will increase their number and quality. Favorable environment is necessary for it. The reasons why biodiversity conservation is necessary are given below:

  1. Protection of Existence of Living Beings: There are innumerable living beings on the earth. In Nepal, animals, birds and organisms of one geographical region are different from those in another region. They are important wealth of nature. It is the duty of people to protect them. Conservation of biodiversity is necessary to ensure their existence and improve their heredity. Biodiversity conservation is essential for the future generations too.
  2. Sustainability of Resources: Biodiversity is the source of products from agriculture, animals and medicinal herbs. People get what are necessary for their life. It is difficult to survive without these things. Therefore, it is necessary to make a wise use of biodiversity with its proper conservation.
  3. Promotion of Natural Scene: Vegetation, animals, birds and other creatures have in fact, ornamented the land topography. Suitable environment has been created on the earth for the living beings. People do not have to spend money to build natural scene but they can utilize the natural gift by conserving it. It helps the development of tourism. People get employment. Economic development of the country can be achieved by developing and making proper management of biodiversity. It can help the present and future generations to maintain their life.
  4. Balance in Natural Process: Water-cycle, weather, variation in temperature, carbon-cycle and oxygen-cycle are the processes which always occur in nature. They are affected by human activities. Nature tries to maintain them without any effects. Activities like birth and death of living beings, their decay and rotting are going on in the natural ecosystem. Trees, plants, animals, birds, microbes help in the operation of these activities. Human life too is associated with natural activities. If biodiversity is not conserved, there will be adverse effect on the natural process as well as on living beings. On the contrary, the conservation of biodiversity contributes to the operation of natural process.
  5. Socio-Economic Development: Biodiversity provides materials that are used for different purposes like food, clothes, industry, etc. These materials can be used for economic and social development. We celebrate many social and cultural festivals, functions, and customs. We obtain things for these activities from biological sources like flowers, colors, incenses etc. So it is essential to conserve biological diversity to continue economic, social and industrial activities.
  6. Study and Research Area: Biodiversity is a wide area for study and research. Natural sources and organisms should be discovered and studied and then they should be conserved and promoted. The result can be used for the welfare of human beings. Biodiversity conservation will help to develop the existence of living beings including man.