Men utilize various resources available in environment. Various developmental activities are conducted in the country. Industries, hydroelectricity, irrigation, road etc. are the developmental activities. By them we get various services and facilities. It is necessary to conduct such activities to improve the standard of living. Man should not degrade the environment while conducting developmental activities and utilizing environmental resources.
Government of Nepal is conducting various programmes on environmental conservation through its various Ministries. Local agencies like Municipality, Village Development Committee, District Development Committee are also conducting various activities on environmental conservation at local level. Various rules and regulations, act and laws etc. have also been formulated. Those legal provisions also support for environmental conservation. Various NGOs and INGOs are also involved in environmental conservation activities. These various types of programmes and activities have also contributed to the conservation of environment. To conserve the environment is the responsibility of all of us. It is necessary to continue the efforts of various sectors for environmental conservation. Some efforts on environmental conservation are mentioned below:
a) Conservation of Forest
Conservation of forest plays significant role for environmental conservation. Forest conservation activities have been conducted by Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation. In addition, community forest programmes have also been conducted. Afforestation and the protection are done for forest conservation. Various rules and regulations have been enacted for forest conservation. Subject-matters of forest conservation have been included in curriculum and textbooks of school and college and in training programmes. These programmes contribute to environmental conservation.
b) Soil conservation
One of the major functions of environment management and conservation is to conserve soil. Soil can be conserved by controlling flood, landslide and soil erosion. Similarly, conservation of pasture land, afforestation in barren land and conservation of forest contribute to soil conservation. Sloped land must be cultivated in terrace. Organic fertilizer should also be used with chemical fertilizer. Such activities are also conducted by Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Ministry of Agriculture etc. Subject-matter on soil conservation are also included in the curriculum of school and campus level. It supports for environmental protection by increasing the awareness among young students who are future responsible citizens. So, various such activities also contribute to conserve the environment.
c) Solid waste management
House, industries, markets are the sources of solid waste. Solid waste management contributes environmental conservation. Local bodies like municipalities, VDCs are working for managing solid waste. We should also contribute in this campaign. Every household must have toilet. We should make public toilets. Passing urine and stool openly causes the environment polluted. Therefore, proper disposal of solid waste should be managed. It helps to make the environment clean and conserve it.
d) Control of pollution
If we control the smoke and dust from means of transportation and factories, air pollution can be controlled. Government is trying to control such pollution. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides, wastage disposal, cause water pollution. If we control the pollution, it helps to control the environment. Therefore, the subject-matter about pollution has been included in the curriculum of school, campus and training programmes. All such efforts help to conserve the environment.