Biology is one of the most important branches of science. It is a science that deals with living things. In other words, biology is the study of life. The word ‘Biology’ is derived from two Greek words: Bios meaning life and logos meaning the discourse or study. Life exists in two forms i.e., plants and animals.
There are two main branches of biology. They are Botany and Zoology. Botany is the branch of biology that deals with the study of plants whereas Zoology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of animals. These two main branches of biology can further be divided into several other branches which deal with the different aspects of plant and animal science. Some of those branches are given below:
1. Morphology (Greek: Morphe-form, logos-study): The study of external form and structure of living organisms is called morphology.
2. Anatomy: The study of internal structure of plants and animals is termed as anatomy.
3. Histology: The study of details of tissue structure of organisms is called histology.
4. Cell Biology: The study of structure, functions, reproduction and life history of cells is called cell biology.
5. Molecular Biology: The study of physio-chemical organization of biomolecules called molecular biology.
6. Physiology: The study of processes and functions associated with life is called physiology.
7. Genetics: The study of heredity and variations is called genetics.
8. Embryology: The study of early stages of development, such as gametes formation, fertilization of eggs and development of the embryo is called embryology.
9. Taxonomy: Taxonomy is that branch of science which deals with the identification, nomenclature and classification of biological objects.
10. Palaeobiology: The study of fossil plants and animals is called palaeobiology.
11. Economic Biology: The study of economically important organisms and their products is called economic biology.
12. Ecology (Greek: oikos-house or habitat, logos-study): The study of plants and animals in reciprocal relationship with the environment is called ecology.
13. Evolution: The change in living organisms over time and adaptation to the conditions of their environment is called evolution.
14. Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as bacteria, is known as microbiology.
15. Protozoology: The study of unicellular organisms is called protozoology.
16. Mycology: The study of fungi is called mycology.
17. Phycology: The study of algae is called phycology.
18. Bryology: The study of liverworts and mosses is called bryology.
19. Helminthology: The study of worms is called helmithology.
20. Parasitology: The study of parasitic organisms is called parasitology.
21. Entomology: The study of insects is called entomology.
22. Ornithology: The study of birds is called ornithology.
23. Mammalogy: Mammalogy is the study of mammals.
24. Herpetology: Herpetology is the study of reptiles and amphibians.
25. Limnology: The study of fresh water and its inhabitants is called limnology.
26. Biometrics: Biometrics is the study of mathematical statistics in relation to biological research.
27. Surgery: It is a branch of medicine which involves physical operation to cure diseases or injuries to the body.
28. Psychology: The study of human behaviour and mental quality is known as psychology.
29. Palaeontology: The study of extinct and fossil organisms is called palaeontology.
30. Veterinary: The study of the diseases of domestic animals and their treatment and health care is called veterinary.
31. Anthropology: The study of origin, physical and mental development of mankind in the present and past races with social conditions is known as anthropology.
32. Biochemistry: The study of chemical substances and chemical processes of living things is known as biochemistry.
33. Biophysics: The application of physics to the study of living things is called biophysics.
34. Exobiology: The study of the existence of life in other planets is called exobiology.