Oct 072012
 


Nowadays, the most widely used vehicles use petroleum products. The use of petroleum products emit harmful gases and smoke which pollute the air. So in order to minimize air pollution, a new technology has been developed. The vehicles that use petroleum products are slowly replaced by the electric vehicles. The vehicles that run with electricity is known as “Green Vehicle”. Green vehicles help in conservation and preservation of environment

as well as control the air pollution. But according to the latest research, the electric vehicles far more pollute the environment than the petroleum vehicles.electric vehicles

According to the researchers of Norwegian Science and Technology University, coal is used to produce electricity and while using such fuels, harmful green house gases are produced which are more  harmful than the gases produced by the petroleum products. Similarly, the electric vehicles manufacturers also produce more harmful chemical substances.

The investigator investigated the traditional type of vehicles and the electric vehicles and also compare the life cycle of the vehicles. In the investigation, different aspects of the vehicles that is production, consumption and the way of disposal are also analyzed considering the electric vehiclesenvironment.

According to the investigator, the production of electric vehicles take a long time than the traditional vehicles and also produce green house gases as twice as the petroleum vehicles. Similarly, the metals like Nickel, Copper and Aluminum that are used for production of battery and electric motor also harm the health of environment and the health of human beings.

But the electric vehicles are far better in such country where there is sufficient production of hydro-electricity and found alternative source of energy.

Oct 072012
 

Golgi bodies are one of the important parts of a cell. They were first discovered or identified by Italian cytologist Camillo Golgi in the year 1898 A.D. He found them in the nerve cells of the barn owl and cat. Golgi bodies were variously named as Golgi bodies, Golgi material, Golgi apparatus, Golgi complex, Golgiosome, Golgi membrane according to the names of their discoverers. Golgi bodies occur in all eukaryotic cells except Red Blood Cells (R.B.C.) of some fungi, sperms cells of bryophytes and pteridophytes. The number of Golgi bodies may vary from a single to several hundreds in a single cell.


While talking about the structure of Golgi bodies, it is a complex structure that contains central plate-like cisternae or lamellae, peripheral network of tubules along with vesicles and vacuoles. The cisternae are a group of dense and flattened parallel sacs which are stacked one above the other. A Golgi apparatus usually contains four to seven or twelve or sometimes thirty or more cisternae. The main features of Golgi bodies are listed below:
  • All the cisternae are slightly curved which gives a concave or convex face.
  • Tubules form a flat network by arising from the peripheral area of the cisternae.
  • Vesicles are small flattened, round, oval or irregular sac-like structures attached to the tubules.
  • Vacuoles are the numerous, large and spacious, round sac-like or irregular structures which are generally found at the distal end of cisternae.

Functions of Golgi bodies
The functions of Golgi bodies are listed below:

  • The Golgi bodies form secretory vesicles which move to the surface of the cell and discharge the secretory molecules outside the cell.
  • After discharging the contents of the secretory vesicles, the membranes of secretory vesicles get incorporated into the plasma membrane. Due to this, the size of membrane slowly increases.
  • Golgi bodies store certain types of proteins and lipids in them.
  • Golgi bodies form a cell plate at the centre of the dividing cell during the cell division.
  • The materials of cell wall such as pectin, hemicellulose and micro-fibrils of α-cellulose are synthesized by Golgi apparatus. Therefore, they also help in the formation of cell wall of plant cell.
  • Golgi apparatus help in the secretion of hormones in endocrine cells.
  • Primary lysosome is formed by Golgi complex.