Jun 042012
 

Nepal is a country which has a very long history. It has been ruled by many rulers which belonged to different tribes. Some tribes of rulers who ruled over Nepal are Kirant, Lichchhavi etc. Among those tribes, Malla is also a tribe which brought out many changes in the structure of Nepal. It is the dynasty when Nepal got developed to some extent due to art, architecture etc. So, the reign of Mallas is a also known as the Golden Period of Nepal. The Mallas created many infrastructures in Nepal during their regime. The even constructed many temples, statues, palaces etc. in different places including Kathmandu (Kantipur), Bhaktapur (Bhadgaon) and Lalitpur (Patan). They constructed Durbars (Palaces) in those places which covered a large area. The descriptions of the Durbar (Palace) Areas of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur are given below:

1. Kathmandu Durbar Area: Kathmandu Durbar Square is one of the Durbar Areas which are situated in Nepal. This Durbar Square was constructed by the Malla Kings during their regime. The Kathmandu Durbar Area is a beautiful place which is full of beautiful, ancient and cultural crafts, drawing and handicrafts etc. This place contains a famous palace which was the residence of ancient Nepalese Kings. There is a temple named Kasthamandap in this place. It is said that this temple is constructed by using only one tree. Kathmandu has got its name after Kasthamandap. The pleasant and beautiful gate of Lord Hanuman (Hanuman Dhoka) can also be found here. Due to this same reason, this Durbar Area is also known as Hanuman Dhoka Durbar Area. Likewise, we can find the temples of Goddess Taleju, Lord Hanuman, Goddess Kumari (Living Goddess), Lord Shiva and Goddess Parwati, Lord Ganesh etc. Similarly, the place for coronation of new Kings can also be found here. This place was used to organize the coronation ceremony of new kings of Nepal.

2. Bhaktapur Durbar Area: The Bhaktapur Durbar Area is situated in the smallest district of Nepal, Bhaktapur. Though this plaza is located in the smallest district of Nepal, it is not small in its area. It is even more beautiful than other Durbar Areas of Nepal. This Durbar Area is well-preserved and well-promoted than the other Durbar Areas of Nepal. This place contains the Taleju temple, Pashupatinath temple, Dwarikanath temple, Krishna temple etc. The main attraction of this area is the Fifty Five Windowed Palace and the Golden Gate. In front of the palace and the golden gate, there is a pillar which contains the statue of Malla King Bhupatindra Malla. There is a temple called the five storied temple (Nyatapola) near to this area. Everyday thousands of tourists visit this place for sightseeing. Likewise, a museum is also located here in which the ancient structures, statues, arts and pictures etc. are preserved and displayed. It is even said that, this place contains altogether 99 courtyards (chowk) due to which this place is even known as the 99 chowk.

3. Lalitpur Durbar Area: Lalitpur Durbar Area is one of the excellent examples of artwork by the Nepalese architectures and craftsmen. This place contains different temples, statues, crafts etc. which represent the ancient Nepalese art and architecture. The monasteries, the temple of Rato Machhindra Nath etc. add beauty to this area. Likwise the famous temple of Lord Krishna also attracts the people towards this place. The main attraction of this place is the Palace which is very much beautiful. This palace displays the lifestyle of the Kings of the ancient Nepal. This place contains architectures which have windows made of elephant bones (hides), the statue of King Yog Narendra Malla, Taleju temple, stone taps and ponds etc. This place is situated at the heart of Lalitpur city. Like the Bhaktapur Durbar Area this area consists of three courtyardds namely the Central Mulchowk, Sundari Chowk and Keshav Narayan Chowk.

Jun 032012
 

Electricity is one of the most important type of energy that is being used too much widely in the world of present era. Many machines, gadgets, vehicles etc. that make human life easier are run with the help of electricity. Today, through this article, we would like to give information to all the viewers about the different sources of electricity. There are different ways of generating electricity. Among those ways, either heat, chemical, light or nuclear energy is converted into electrical energy or simply electricity. Generally, we can find two types of devices which are commonly used for generating electricity. They are Cell and Generator (Dynamo).

  1. Cell: A cell is a source of electricity which produces electric energy by using the chemical energy stored in it. It is easily portable and it can also be used in a group to generated the required amount of electric current and can produce direct current. Due to this reason, it is used extensively. A group of cells is called battery. There are different kinds of cells namely dry cell, lead acid cell etc. which are used in many electronic devices such as camera, calculator, watches, video games, torchlights, radio, walkman etc.
  2. Photo Cell: A photo cell is an advanced type of cell which converts light energy into electrical energy. It produces less current so it is used in less devices like watches, calculators, cameras etc. The electric energy produced by this cell is not enough to use in large factories and industries. However, large solar panels are used in less populated and remote areas for household electrification. Satellites in the orbits have huge photo cells or solar panels to meet their need of energy.
  3. Hydro Electricity: The electric energy produced by generator by using kinetic energy of running water is called hydro electricity. In Nepal and other underdeveloped and least developed countries electricity is generated by this technique. Water from the rivers is collected in a reservoir. Then the water from the reservoir is made to flow through the pipes at a high speed towards the power house situated below the reservoir. The force of the water makes the turbine of the generator rotate at a high speed and hence electricity is generated. There is a continuous flow of water in the river throughout the year so hydroelectricity is never finished (inexhaustible) and it is considered as a renewable source of energy. In addition, it does not create the problem of environment pollution and it is comparatively cheaper than other sources of energy. So, hydro electricity is considered as the best source of electrical energy.
  4. Dynamo or Generator: Dynamo is a device which converts mechanical energy into electric energy. Generally, a device that generates more energy is called generator and the device that produces less energy is called dynamo. Generator works using different forms of energy like thermal energy, atomic energy or hydro energy.
  • Thermal Energy: Generator can make the use of chemical energy of fuels such as diesel, petrol, kerosene etc. to produce electricity. The machine which produces electricity by this method is generally known as thermoplant. Thermoplants are fed fuels which produce energy and run the engines and the engines turn the generator. The electricity produced by this method is very much expensive and produces smoke which gives rise of air pollution as well as environmental degradation.
  • Atomic Energy: Atomic energy is the energy which is produced by the nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. Nuclear fission and fusion both can give rise to huge amount of energy which is also known as atomic energy.  This energy can be used to generate electricity. In this technique, the heat produced by nuclear reaction is used to produce steam from water which make the engine work. The engine then runs the generator which in turn produces electric energy. The machine which produces electricity by this method is called atomic power plant. Millions of kilowatts of energy is generated by this method in the developed countries. Though this technique can help in produce high amount of electricity, it gives rise to pollution due to the emission of harmful radiation.