Jun 232012
 

Education is the measuring rod for development of nation. It is the bulwark of the nation and the most important infrastructure of development. The quality of education determines the status of people and whole country. In the context of Nepal, we can find that a very few number of people are educated. But the number of educated people are increasing every year. Many schools, colleges and other educational institutions are being established day by day. But these educational institutions are only being centralized in the urban and developed areas of Nepal. This is the main obstacle behind the slow development of the education system of Nepal. Beside this, there are may other bitter truths about the Nepalese Education System.

Though we have many educational institutions established in the country, these institutions lack the infrastructures that are very much important for providing quality education to the students. This problem is more prevalent in the educational institutions of the rural areas of the country. But we can’t say that such problems can’t be found in the educational institutions of the urban and developed areas of the country. There is lack of many physical, economical and social infrastructures which is hindering the educational system and development of the country.

The first and foremost problem that is affecting the education system of Nepal badly, is the unaffordable cost for providing education. Most of the parents of the students are very much poor in their economic status. They have to work hard to earn their livelihood. They can’t afford money even for their basic necessities. In spite of such a condition also, they are trying to provide education to their children. They send their children to educational institutions but they cannot afford the cost of educating their children for a long time. Due to this, they are forced to make their children deprived of quality education. Thus, we can say that the poor economic condition of the people of Nepal is creating a problem in providing quality education.

Likewise the children of rural areas of Nepal don’t get proper environment, health care, food and nourishment which hampers their mind and concentration power very much. Because of this, the students are not being able to concentrate in their classes and studies. This problem gives rise to another problem. Due to lack of concentration of the students in the classes, it is sure that their studies get hampered badly. With this problem, they have to become the victims of physical as well as mental torture. Since there is the practice of physically punishing the students when they don’t concentrate on their studies, the students have to become the victim of such tortures from the teachers. It is said that such practices can bring the students in the right path, but they may even lead to physical and mental injuries which may destruct the career as well as the life of the students.

In the same way, the next obstacle in providing quality education to the students of Nepal is the lack of proper manpower and the infrastructures. There is lack of efficient manpower (teachers, professors, lecturers etc.) in the educational institutions of Nepal. The teachers don’t have enough academic qualifications due to which they become unable to provide quality education to the students. Similarly, there are less people who are attracted towards this profession since they don’t get enough amount of salary from this profession. Due to these reasons, there is insufficient and ineligible manpower working in the educational institutions of the country. Likewise, the physical infrastructures that are needed for providing quality education to the students are not easily available. The science laboratory, its apparatus, computer labs, playgrounds, drinking water, toilets etc. are unavailable in most of the institutions of the country.

Most of the analysts say that the curriculum of Nepal is also a factor that is creating problem in providing quality education. It is because the curriculum of Nepal doesn’t give more priority to practical education. It just gives importance to mugged out education. There is no provision of providing importance to new and innovative thoughts. Likewise, there is no provision of providing training to the teachers. Due to these reasons also, the education of Nepal is being highly affected.

These are the obstacles that are hampering the education system of the country. But only these are not the problems since there are other innumerable issues that are affecting the education system. There are many other bitter truths behind the educational system of Nepal.

 

Jun 222012
 

There are many types of electromagnetic waves that can be found all over this universe. Some waves are very much powerful whereas some waves are weak. Some of the strong electromagnetic waves are Gamma Ray, X-Ray, Ultraviolet Ray etc. and some of the weak electromagnetic waves are Infrared Ray, Radio Wave etc. According to the strength of such waves, they are used in various works. A list of electromagnetic waves with their area of application are described below:

1. Gamma Ray: Gamma rays have high penetrating capacity. Due to this reason, they are used for killing harmful germs, bacteria, sterilizing of medical instruments and to kill cancer cells inside the body (by radio therapy). These rays are produced from radioactive elements and are harmful on exposure. So, gamma rays can be termed as dangerous electromagnetic waves.

2. X-Ray: X-Rays have less penetrating capacity than gamma rays, so they can pass through muscle and skin but can’t pass through bones, stones, bullets and diseased tissues. So, they are used to detect the presence of bullet or stone or tumors inside the body. It is also used to locate the fractured or broken part of bone in the body. X-Rays are produced when very fast moving electrons are stopped by a heavy type of metal. Much exposure to X-Ray may result to cancer, so it is harmful.

3. Ultraviolet Ray: Ultraviolet rays are produced by carbon arc lamp, electric spark, discharge tube, mercury vapour lamp, hot bodies and the sun. Low concentration of UV light kills germs, converts ergosterol found in our skin, into Vitamin D. They are also useful in the formation of ozone layer, which is the protective layer in the atmosphere. It is also used in burglar alarm, automatic door openers etc. The atom of some substances convert UV light into visible light. Such substances are called fluorescent substances and the process is called fluorescence. Fluorescent powder in mercury lamp converts UV light into visible light. Excess concentration of UV rays can destroy the retina and make a person blind. It may even burn our skin which may peel off making severe wounds. It may result to skin cancer too.

4. Visible Light: Visible light are the electromagnetic waves which can be detected by the eyes of the living beings. They are produced by hot objects and the sun. They are used for lighting and green plants use visible light for their food making process known as photosynthesis.

5. Infrared Rays: Infrared rays are also called heat rays. These rays are produced from hot bodies such as the sun, heaters etc. They are used for cooking, drying, infrared photography etc. Infrared is not scattered by mist of haze in the air so that a clear photograph of objects at considerable distance can be obtained easily. So, this technique is much suitable for photography in foggy areas. These days, infrared photographs are taken by using thermograph. Such photographs are used to determine the variations in the temperatures. When a body absorbs infrared rays, it gains heat energy and becomes hot.

6. Microwave: Like ultraviolet rays, microwaves are also produced from the hot bodies, microwave ovens etc. They are used for heating, cooking as well as for satellite television, communication and radar. Radar system uses these waves to detect the direction and distance of the object.

7. Radio Waves: Radio waves are one of the widely used and well known electromagnetic waves. These waves are produced by radio transmitters, TV Transmitters, radars etc. They are used for transmitting radio, television programme and for communication. The antenna of radio and television absorbs the radio wave energy and then converts them into electrical energy. This electric energy is then converted into sound and light energy. The earth’s atmosphere has electrically charged layers which reflect the radio waves towards the earth. Most of the radio stations use radio waves of wavelengths of 11 to 120m. These are short waves. Ultra High Frequency (UHF) and Very High Frequency (VHF) radio waves have shorter wave lengths. They are not reflected by the layers of atmospheric air. They are slightly diffracted by hills. FM systems use this frequency to transmit sound waves.