Aug 042012

In many societies, women are values only for their reproductive role. They have limited access to position and power, as well as fewer occupational choices and lower earning than men. Frequently, they must struggle to reconcile activities outside the home with their traditional roles as wives, mother, daughter, sisters and sister in law. Women need support in all of their varied roles. A range of actions involving better educational and job opportunities, elimination of gender biases and improved access to quality reproductive health care are required to empower women to participate fully in social, economic and public life. Such empowerment would give women an equal voice in decision-making both within their families an in their community as a whole. In this way, the women of the family are able to engage in services and community-oriented income generating activities directly. By participating in such creative activities, women improve their economic life and the programme of women employment can go ahead. As a result, they become self-dependent, capable and successful to support themselves.

 Objectives of Women Empowerment
The objectives of women empowerment can be enlisted below.

  • To eliminate the discrimination between men and women.
  • To make women realize their ability and enhance their capacity.
  • To encourage women to get involved and participate in policy making programmes.
  • To make women participate in various programmes of different sectors like productive employment, income generating activities, health, science and technology, sports, cultural activities, population control activities etc.
  • To increase women’s contribution in sustainable development.
  • To educate women about their human rights and help them in fulfillment of their requirement.

 Challenges of women empowerment
There are many challenges faced by women in the process of being empowered. The major ones are enlisted below:

  • Poor or weak health conditions
  • Lower literacy rate than that of men
  • Low economic services and facilities
  • Lack of income-generating activities
  • Restrictions put up by our tradition, culture, values and norms
  • Burdens of household chores
  • Suffering from HIV/AIDS
  • Girls trafficking
  • Increment in rape and violence against women
  • Increasing number of women immigrants
  • Prevalence of female child murder
  • Lack of skill development opportunities
  • Lack of employment opportunities
  • Lack of legal rights to female

 Necessary steps to be taken for women empowerment
The following steps are to be taken for women empowerment:

  • Parent should treat their sons and daughters equally.
  • Family should support females economically and morally. They should encourage them to do different useful task.
  • The policies and development of the nation should be clearly specified to bring women into national mainstream.
  • Unfavorable laws for women should be cleared and congenial laws should be formulated and executed.
  • All organizations should be jointly mobilized to stop violence and exploitation against women.
  • Different health services from the local level should be conducted to improve their health status.
  • Special privilege should be given to marginalized but outstanding women in different educational sectors.
  • The course from school to higher levels should include the subject matter related to gender equity which makes people aware of it.
  • Different skills and employment-oriented training should be provided to female in order to increase their number in different sectors like agriculture, industry, forest, transportation and so on.
  • The women who have contributed a lot in developmental sectors should be felicitated.
  • The prevalent laws, which are formulated for uplifting the women, must be executed. The national and international treaties made in regard to female rights should be strongly executed.
  • Female participation in management and consumption should be increased.


Aug 032012

Cell is one of the important aspects of the bodies of living organisms. It is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. It consists of microscopic mass of protoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane. It is the smallest unit of organisms that can carry on all the processes of life. In a unicellular organism, the single cell performs all metabolic functions such as respiration, growth, reproduction, digestion, excretion etc. In multicellular organisms all the vital activities are the result of combined action of these cells. Hence, cell is considered as basic unit of life.

Discovery of the Cell: In 1665, a biologist Robert Hooke (1635-1703) cut a thin slick of cork and observed it under his primitive microscope. He observed many small, hollow, honey-comb like compartments. For each compartment, he gave the name cell. The cell is derived from a Latin word cellula meaning small room.

In 1675, a Dutch scientist, Antoni Van Leeuwenhock (1632-1723) observed and described unicellular bodies like bacteria, protozoa, sperms and red blood cells. He also noticed that the cells were not just hollow spaces but contained some organization within them.

The Cell Theory

In 1838, a German botanist, Matthias Schleiden (1804-1881) concluded that all plants were cmposed of cells. A year later (1839) the German Aoologist Theodore Schwann (1810-1882) came to the same conclusion about animals. Schwann recognized that both plant and animal cells had a nucleus and a clear substance around it. He defined the ‘cell’ as a membrane enclosed, nucleus-containing structure. He proposed a hypotheses: the bodies of animals and plants are composed of cells and the products of cells.

The combined views of Schleiden and Schwann led to the formulation of the Cell Theory. However, this theory was not able to explain how new cells are formed. It was Rudolf Virchow (1855) who explained that cells divide and that all new cells must come from pre-existing cells. Therefore, some changes have been made in the old theory. The Cell Theory is also known as the Cell Doctrine or Cell Principle. It states:

(i) All living organisms are made up of cells and their products.

(ii) All cells arise from pre-existing cells.

(iii) Cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms.

(iv) All cells are basically alike in chemical composition and metabolic activities.

(v) Life passes from one generation to other generation in the form of a living cell.

(vi) Cells are hereditary units.

(vii) The function of an organism is the outcome of the activities and interactions of the constituent cells.

Exceptions to Cell Theory

Cell theory is one of the most fundamental and universally applied theories except in few cases. They are:

(i) Virus is a living organism but it lacks the cellular organization.

(ii) Bacteria, blue-green algae are prokaryotes and hence are without true cellular structures.