Aug 302012
 


The term migration refers to the movement of people from one place to another place. Moving from place where one gets birth and is brought up to another place of the same country is the internal migration. The trend of internal migration is rapidly increasing in Nepal day by day. Most of the people of mountain and hilly regions are moving towards Terai and urban areas. Reasons behind it are the

extreme physical topography, less productive area, unbearable climate, the scarcity of job opportunity and so on. Similarly, people are leaving their original place and going towards other areas in search of basic needs like food, shelter, education, health services and other needs.

The movement of people from one country to another country is external migration. It causes a great change in size of population of both countries. In Nepal, the size of population is increasing due to the flow of people from other countries especially from India and Bhutan. External migration rate can be calculated by deducting the number of immigrants from the number of emigrants. At present, the rate of internal migration is higher than the external migration since many people are entering into Nepal from India in search of jobs and from Bhutan as refugees. It has directly affected social, physical and cultural aspects of Nepal.

Types of migration


There are two types of migration. They are described below:

a. Internal Migration: Migration that takes place within the same country is called internal migration. In the context of Nepal, people from the mountains and hilly region migrate to the Terai region. People also migrate from the villages to the town and cities. It affects the distribution and growth of population. It changes the total number of population of the particular place.

b. External or International Migration: Movement of people from one country to another country is called external or international migration. It affects the total population and distribution of population.

External migration is further divided into two types:

a. Immigration: The coming of people from another country to host country is called immigration.

b. Emigration: Movement of people from their native country to another country is called emigration. Many Nepalese are migrating to other countries for higher education, employment, tour, industrial and trade motives.

Causes of Migration

There are different causes of migration sometimes even complex factors cause migration. The causes of migration are divided as pull and push factors.

  • Pull factors: People leave their original place when there is the scarcity of food, education, health services, sources of entertainment, job opportunities etc. They migrate to such places where they get such facilities. These come under pull factors.
  • Push factors: People migrate from one place to another place due to the lack of job opportunities, food, health services, education etc. They migrate towards such place where they find the facilities, which they need. Thus, the scarcity of various facilities of original place is the push factor. Apart from the above factors, people are found to migrate to such places where their kin as well as good neighbors stay. Some people migrate due to their job as well.
Aug 282012
 

An ideal age at marriage provides more opportunity for higher education, employment and social life for both man and women. Proper age at marriage presumes fuller growth of women in terms of physique. She is more mature physiologically, mentally and emotionally to understand and respond more effectively to the needs of a baby before and after delivery. Simultaneously, proper age at marriage helps to reduce the effective marital fertility span, better spacing in the birth and contribute to the reduction of fertility rates of the society. That is why; young couples and parents who want to marry their children should understand the advantages of proper age at marriage. Relating with the previous points, some advantages of age at marriage are given below:


Advantages of marriage at appropriate age for man and women

  • There is an opportunity of getting education that will make them self-dependent.
  • There will be an opportunity of learning income-generating skill. They will be able to stand well with an opportunity of developing personality.
  • It will be easy for women to get employment or carry out income generating occupation, keep their health sound and perform their responsibility as successful women at their homes.
  • A mother physically, mentally, morally and spiritually mature and healthy will bear a healthy child and it will be easy for her to rear and take care of the child.
  • There will be a less danger for the mother’s and child’s health during delivery.
  • The parents will have knowledge and awareness and they can plan happy future of their children as responsible parents.
  • The parent will have knowledge for providing every member of family with nutritious and balanced diet to keep all of them healthy and smart. Both the husband and wife will be able to bring up the children.

 Disadvantages of early marriage
If women are married early, they start to bear children from earlier age. There will be a probability of bearing more children. The size of family will be large and it will have a negative effect on quality of life. Early and continuous childbearing without interval will have various negative effects on child health. This will also have a negative effect on maternal and child health due to the lack of proper care. Quality education is also impossible. The skilled and capable manpower according to the demand of society cannot be prepared due to this reason. In this way, the early marriage will have the following disadvantages for men and women.

  • There will be less opportunity of education.
  • The couple will be bound by the responsibility of sustaining family by realizing the importance of child rights.
  • The couples will have a difficulty in performing their responsibilities after marriage both physically and mentally and will face economic difficulty.
  • The reproductive organs of women are not well developed.
  • The size of uterus is small because it is not well developed.
  • The child would have low weight and there will be a probability of high infant mortality rate.
  • There is a possibility of miscarriage/abortion due to the immature and weak uterus.
  • The baby may be born earlier. It will not be well developed both physically and mentally.
  • The women will not get an opportunity of income-generating skill. Therefore, they have to depend on others to keep family health good.
  • There will be a lack of proper knowledge about the reproductive process, family planning and natural and child health care.
  • They will be physically weal due to the burden of children in few years.
  • The family life may be unstable due to the marriage at earlier age.