Sep 082012

Gender Concept

Human society is the creation of human beings for continuity of their generations. It has been created by the joint effort of the both male and female. Human beings are social creatures. They develop and grow as their ancestors grew and developed. The social acquisition of man and woman resemble son the basis of social composition, not on biological characteristics. Human beings get birth with distinct sex. They do not bear the gender concept. It is the result of human being’s honor and aim of life depends upon his/her sex.

The gender concept indicates the following facts:

  • To have common values of male and female in a role, responsibility, activity, rights and feelings which are provided by the society.
  • To have such qualities of male and female which they lean during the process of socialization and not from their birth.
  • To have social relation between male and female.

But the gender concept is not following concept:

  • Sexual identity
  • Being cultural instead of being biological
  • Constant (it is always dynamic)
  • Universal, (it differs from one country, race and community to other related sectors)

In actual sense, gender concept is the distinct role played by male and female due to their difference in sex. It is a good method to understand and think about the effects of such roles. Gender concept helps to make decision about the distribution of responsibilities, rights, duties between genders considering their status.

The gender concept can be analyzed in the following main points:

1. Gender Roles

Gender roles is the task performed by the male and female sch as how to think, how to make decisions, how to behave and how to assimilate from the gender view point, remaining within the periphery of the role given by the society.

Gender role has been divided mainly into four major activities. They are: reproductivity, productivity, community management and constituency policies. The role of the human being in these four arenas depends upon their sex. The society keeps norms, values and prestige on the basis of gender role. Father and mother recognize their roles towards their offspring distinctly. All these behavior and roles are related to social norms and values. Those who are unable to perform their roles are boycotted from the society. If mother does not care for her family, they are not accepted in the society. They are expelled from the society. Thus, it is necessary to perform the roles according to the gender.

Gender role depends upon various subjects. Especially it relies on the caste, source of income, settlement areas, educational status etc. It differs from caste to caste and culture to culture. Somewhere we find women as the head of the family and somewhere men. There is gender equity in urban and educated areas. We find equal existence of male and female de to their mutual co-operation and understanding. But there is high exploitation of female in an uneducated society.

2. Gender Division of Labour

The gender division of labour has further widened the gap between male and female. Some people are of the opinion that labour division is based on their biological structure. Such division is not of the same type forever. It differs from time to time and society to society. Thus, it is not wise to state that labour division relies upon biological structures. It seems more rational to divide labour on the basis of capacity that male and female possess. The chores that females do inside house and out of it should be considered and taking them into consideration the female does have triple roles. They are reproduction, productivity and community management. Some people say that female have seven types of roles. They are workers, employee, wife, mother, house wife, kin and community role.

Some people count the roles played by the women as household oriented, market oriented and reproducing. Such distinct concepts regarding the gender division of labour form different scalars. Their roles or labour depend upon their cordial relationship with males, mutual co-operation, understanding and so on. It equalizes them to the male beside reproductive function.

The prevalent social norms and values have separated the roles of men and women. In general, males work out of home. Most of their works are of productive type. But females are found to be confined within the four walls of house. They perform unproductive type of works like preparing food, caring children, cleaning home and surrounding and so on. Though the tasks performed by females are more significant, they are undervalued as they do not collect money. If the household chores had been valued and rewarded by money, females would be brought into mainstream of development of the nation. Their participation in development is out of calculation.

3. Right to mobilize different sources (Access)

The ability of any person to perform any kind of work depends upon the source and labour. The success of any work is counted on the basis of the capacity of mobilization of the source, investment and other determinants. There is vast difference between male and female in the capacity of mobilizing sources and consuming its benefits. Females are usually deprived of such rights. The main reason behind it is less participation of female in development works. Their works are different from that of males. They spend most of their time preparing food, caring children and doing other less significant household chores. It is thought that they spend most of their time in leisure as they stay home. It is though because they are not seen out of their house and not found involved in development activities. These types of tendency do not let woman a chance to mobilize sources. Some women have got this right to mobilize sources in a direct observation from male. Therefore, the main concept of gender equity is to provide equal chance to both male and female for mobilizing sources.

4. Gender Needs

Gender needs seem to be different from other needs. This need relies upon gender role, gender division of labour and access. It can be viewed from two ways. The first need is of basic type like necessity of health, occupation, water, food etc. To fulfill these needs, male and female play their roles. In other terms, these basic needs are fulfilled by the joint effort of male and female. The second needs include some psychological and emotional needs like love, affection, kindness, sympathy etc. But due to the inequality in rights and power, sometimes there arise disputes between male and female and usually females are discriminated in occupation, wages, law etc.

But the main objective of gender concept is to evaluate and empower female by giving them special importance and bring them into the mainstream of the nation.

Sep 072012

Migration affects both the place of origin and of destination. It affects in various aspects of the society. It affects the distribution and growth of population. As people migrate from one place to another in large number, the population increases in the destination area but the population of the place of origin decreases. So, by means of the process of migration, there appear the changes in the distribution of population and this change causes further change in various fields of development. In Nepal, migration itself has been a problems arising from migration have been equally challenging for the government. At present, migration from the mountains and hills to the Terai and migration from villages to the towns and cities have been two trends of migration in Nepal. For the last few years, great majority of Nepalese youths have developed a trend to go to foreign countries for the sake of employment. In this way, migration has affected both the place of origin and of destination places in several ways. Particularly from the system of migration, the following effects can be seen:

  • Change in the size: When people migrate from one place to another in large number, the population increases in the destination area but the population decreases in the place of origin. The number of youths increase in the destination area and more youths come there from many places. They are inspired to get marriage. It increases the number of children.
  • Change in age composition: Generally, youths and active population migrate from one place to another place. Thus, the number of active population decreases in the original place. It creates change in the age composition.
  • Change in country’s development: The growth and development of any country is affected by its status of migration. Usually youths, active manpower, educated and active male migrate from one place to another place which decreases the number of active people in the original place that makes development work difficult there. On the other hand, it increases the number of active manpower in the destination area which helps to run the developmental activities in the area. In the context of Nepal, there is a high trend of migration from hilly region and mountain region to Terai. The land of hilly and mountain areas remain barren as there are no people to cultivate. It has caused low production. On the other hand, due to the overflow of population in the urban areas and the Terai region, so many adverse effects have appeared in economic, social, cultural and environmental aspects of these areas. High migration has created the problem of drinking water, transportation, electricity, quality education and so on in these destination areas.

Measures for controlling migration

In Nepal, migration itself has been a problem and the problem arising from the migration have been equally challenging to the government. It should be checked in time otherwise it would bring many serious types of problems in the country. The following measures can be applied to control the migration to some extent:

  • Development activities should be carried out to involve youths in their own place.
  • Drinking water, transport, electricity, schools and other facilities should be well managed.
  • Schools for the children should be established.
  • Health services should be made available in each and every corner of the country.
  • Different development projects should be launched to increase job opportunity.
  • Infrastructure of development should be made available in remote areas of the nation.
  • The distribution and pressure of population should be balanced.
  • There should be the provision of fulfillment of basic needs for the common people.
  • Systematic urbanization should be there to check the unmanaged urbanization.
  • There should be sustainable development for long lasting effects.