Dec 152012

Before reading this post, please be notified that we are not trying to bring out negative or even positive thoughts in the mentality of the readers. We can’t explain if the earth will be or will not be destructed in December, 2012.


This is the burning issue that is ruling over the minds of the people living in each and every corner of the world. After many years of prediction of the destruction of the world, December 2012 has finally reached to our doorsteps. Yes, December 2012, which is predicted as the final month that will exist in the present human civilization. Along with the rumours, facts, discussions, debates about the end of the worldecember 2012 Destruction of Earthd in 2012, many people think that this time has came so quickly. Many people are totally shocked by hearing this fact, most of them are thinking of ways to protect themselves from this so called disastrous month and very less of them believe that the world cannot end in such an astonishing manner. People even say that this is just a rumour in order to make people mentally depressed. Many websites and social networking sites are also creating discussions about this topic. They are collecting the views and thoughts of people about this.

There are many explanations that can be found regarding the devastation of the earth in 21st, 22nd and 23rd December, 2012. Experts, scientists and other various personalities have their own views about this topic. The views and thoughts about this topic are different from person to person. Great organizations like National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) also carried out experiments and research works to know more about this matter. Many scientists, astrologists, historians, geologists etc. have also done their own activities to come to a specific conclusion regarding this topic. NASA says that there will not be any kind of disasters in the so called disastrous days. And many experts have also supported this conclusion. But there are other people too who have their own conclusions. Different people and organizations have brought forward the matters like Mayan Civilization, lining up of planets, colliding of the earth with another planet etc.

While talking about the Mayan Civilization, it is one of the most advanced civilizations that ever existed on the earth. The people of this civilization used to stay in American continent. They used to reside in South American places and countries like Guatemala, Mexico etc. These people were so much accurate in mathematics and astrology that their calculations were mostly accurate. So, it is said that in order to mark the days of the lifetime of the earth, Maya Calendar was created which contained dates only till December 21, 2012 A.D. It is also said that after that day, the earth will no more remain.

Collision of EarthSimilarly, another subject matter brought forward about this topic is the lining of the planets. It is said that this December, all the planets of the solar system will be in opposite position to each other.

Likewise, next conclusion is the colliding of the earth with another planet or heavenly body. Many experts have stated that the earth will be colliding with another planet or other heavenly body within this month.

Another rumour is that the earth will be turning upside down this December. In other words, the South Pole will transform into the North Pole and the North Pole will transform into the South Pole. This will bring severe change in the geographical structure of the earth. This will also affect the gravitational and geo-magnetic force of the earth. Due to this reason, it is estimated that the electronic devices won’t be working and the earth may face a complete blackout.

But National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has concluded that the earth won’t be facing any type of destruction, devastation or disasters on these days. It has also guaranteed that the whole earth is totally safe.

These are the conclusions and facts brought forward by different experts and organizations. There are other different conclusions regarding this topic. Nobody knows if these facts and conclusions are true. But this is not the first prediction about the destruction of the earth. In the past also, many predictions were brought forward. The prediction done in 1840 A.D. is also its example. But nothing happened. Similarly, many predictions were brought forward in the decade of 1990. Among the predictions brought forward in 1990, the most powerful one was the prediction which stated that the earth would be destroyed on 31st December, 1990. But it was a rumour too. Likewise, similar prediction was done in 2003 too. But it was false too.

There is no one in this whole universe who can guarantee that the earth is either safe or in danger in this December, 2012. But the main work that we, all the residents of the earth should do is to be optimistic and pray to the God that everything will be fine. We should never lose hope and always be strong, brave and hopeful. After all, we must leave this world one day, so why to be scared from death? Let’s face it and show that we are not cowards. All the best, everyone.

May the Supreme power, the God provide all the power and daringness to face these so called destructive days.

Save others, save yourself, save the earth!

– Sagun Raj Lage

Dec 142012
Water Pollution

Water Pollution

Water pollution is a burning issue of today’s twenty first century. Among four different pollutions, it is also the one which is caused by the addition of unwanted materials into water and its sources. It can be defined as the change in the physical and chemical properties of water due to addition of inorganic matters, organic matters and microorganisms into water bodies. This is very much harmful for health. It also reduces the usefulness of water.

Sources of Water Pollution

The major sources of water pollution are listed below:

  • Household sources
  • Industrial sources
  • Agricultural wastes
  • Oil tanker
  • Thermal plants
  • Natural sources like landslide, flood etc.

Major Pollutants of Water Pollution and their consequences

  1. Sewage and domestic wastes: Sewage can be defined as the liquid waste which is discharged from all the domestic and industrial sources. About 75% of water pollution is caused by domestic waste and sewage. It causes spreading of different water-borne diseases like cholera, typhoid, hepatitis or jaundice etc. It also kills different aquatic animals and destroys the biological activities. Water reservoirs always maintain a balance between available oxygen and decomposition of organic matters. This capacity is lost due to addition of excess sewage and other wastes. The rate of re-oxygenation becomes slower than the rate of deoxygenation. This activity leads to develop maximum Biological Oxidation Demand (BOD). Biological Oxidation Demand is defined as the amount of oxygen required for biological oxidation by microorganisms present in water bodies. Biological Oxidation Demand is taken as indicator of degree of pollution. The Biological Oxidation Demand value in clean water is about 1 to 2 gram per litre.
  2. Household detergents: Household detergents are used for washing clothes and cleaning utensils in almost all houses of modern era. These are released into drains which ultimately carry them to water sources like lakes, ponds, rivers, streams etc. The major constituents of detergent include inorganic phosphates and nitrates, ammonium, Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate (ABS). Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate is non-biodegradable and gets accumulated in water bodies which generally form foam over water surface. This causes obstruction to aquatic animals and plants, especially for respiration.
  3. Inorganic phosphates and nitrates: Phosphates and nitrates stimulate the growth of algae and cover almost all parts of the water surface. This excess growth of algae is called algal bloom. At the same time, algae release toxins which are very much harmful for aquatic organisms. This causes the death of organisms and as a result, large amount of organic matters get deposited in the water bodies. Water bodies rich in such organic matters are called eutrophics. And this process is called eutrophication. The organic matter is decomposed by microorganisms leading to scarcity of oxygen and more carbon dioxide in water. This further causes to death of aquatic animals.
  4. Industrial wastes: Industries like diary, paper mills, automobile workshops, plasticware factories, textiles etc. produce wastes which are sent into the drains which ultimately carry these effluence to water reservoirs. These wastes contain suspended dust, coal, ash etc. Poisons like acids, mercury, copper, zinc, arsenic, inorganic reducing substances like ferrous salts, sulphides etc. are also released. Different acids, alkalis, lead etc. reduce the oxygen transporting capacity of blood in human body.
  5. Oils: Oils leaked or spilled from the oil tankers , washing of automobiles etc. make water sources polluted. These activities affect the aquatic animals badly and even degrade the quality of water. They also kill aquatic vegetation and plants near the coastal areas.
  6. Agro-chemicals: Different agro-chemicals like pesticides, insecticides and chemical fertilizers are used by farmers in their fields for better productivity. These chemicals are washed into different water sources with the help of rain water. These substances are taken up by many organisms through food chain which degrades the health of the organisms.

Control Measures of Water Pollution
The ways to control water pollution are given below:

  • Cleaning and treatment of drainage water, septic tanks, oxidation ponds etc. are used to reduce the amount of organic substances. There are two ways of treatment for sewage, they are: primary treatment and secondary treatment. Primary treatment includes physical processes like sedimentation, filtration, floatation etc. Similarly, secondary treatment includes the use of microorganisms in oxidation ponds. Reverse osmosis is newly introduced technique which helps in recycling water into pure and clean form.
  • Recycling of waste products should be done.
  • The use of pesticides, insecticides and chemical fertilizers should be minimized.
  • Another effective method to control water pollution is the treatment of factory effluent in a way that only harmless substances are released.
  • Awareness programmes about water pollution and its effects can be conducted.
  • Laws should be made and enforced strictly.