Apr 082013

Topology can simply be defined as the geographical orientation as well as arrangement of networking components of a network. Similarly, protocol can be described as the set of rules and procedures which govern the transmission of messages over a physical networking medium.

Here, in this post, we’re going to describe about Bus Topology, which is a major type of topology in networking. Before knowing about Bus Topology, let us first know about Ethernet Topology.

Ethernet Topology

Ethernet Topology was developed at the University of Hawaii so as to connect the computers on the various islands of Hawaii. It was a radio-based design. The term ‘Ethernet’ is a compound word of ether which means air and net which means network. Later, Robert Metacafe went to Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) laboratories. The radio portion was eliminated and changed to coaxial cabling. This was string from station to station. This station to station topology was named linear bus.

Ethernet uses bus topology. This is the simplest and widely used network topologies. Ethernet’s bus consists of one continuous length of coaxial cabling (trunk) and a terminating resistor (terminator) at each end. The Ethernet message travels along the bus in both directions until it is picked up by a Network Interface Card (NIC) of workstation. If the message is missed or not recognized, it reaches the cabling and dissipates at the terminator. If it weren’t for the terminator, the message would reflect back towards the trunk and cause harmful collisions.

All workstations have equal access to the trunk. The number of nodes and length of the trunk can be expanded easily with repeaters.

If a break occurs in the cabling or if too many nodes try to access the trunk simultaneously, the whole topology crashes. In general, the bus topology is flexible and inexpensive which makes it ideal for Ethernet LANs.

The major advantages of Ethernet are:

  • It is a cheap way to achieve high-speed Local Area Network transmissions, i.e. 10 to 100 MBPS.
  • IT is the technology which supports various writing configurations.
  • It works well with a large number of Local Area Networks and micro-to-mainframe applications.
  • Its installation is quite easier.

The disadvantages of Ethernet are:

  • Ethernet is not a high-level performer in high-load environments. This protocol (CSMA/CD: Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection) can slow down dramatically if hundreds of workstations are competing for the same cabling trunk.
  • Its linear bus cabling system can sometimes make it difficult to isolate problems.
bus topology

Bus Topology

How To Boot A Computer Using A Pen Drive?

 Uncategorized  Comments Off on How To Boot A Computer Using A Pen Drive?
Apr 082013

Do you have the question, “How to boot a computer using a pen drive?” in your mind? If yes, then this is a tutorial which will let you to learn about booting a computer using a pen drive. This is a new as well as quite interesting trick to be learned. This will allow you to boot your computer even if you don’t have a DVD/CD-Drive in your desktop, laptop, notebook or mini-laptop. This is a quite easy task to do but you must be very careful while doing this task since this may damage your pen drive too, if not done carefully. But fortunately, the chances of getting you pen drive damaged is just one percent. So, relax and carry on. Now, the requirements or infrastructures that you’ll need to boot your computer using a pen drive are:

  • A Pen Drive with a minimum storage capacity of 4 GB.
  • Any bootable disk.

Now below are the steps that should be followed in order to create a bootable pen drive:

Step 1: Plug-in your pen drive to your computer.

Step 2: Open Windows PowerShell (OR you can open Command Prompt if Windows PowerShell is not available). If you are using Windows 7 or Windows Vista or above, please open PowerShell or Command Prompt with administrator rights. For opening Windows PowerShell, you can first click on Start menu, then select All Programs. After that click on Accessories and click on Windows PowerShell. Then right click on Windows PowerShell and click on “Run as Administrator”.Booting_1

Step 3: After opening Windows PowerShell with administrator rights, type DISKPART
This will start the Microsoft DiskPart utility as shown below:Booting_2
Now use the following command:


After using this command, you will be shown a list of available disks on your computer system. Disk 0 is generally the hard disk. In my case, Disk 1 is the USB drive, but this can be different in your case. The preview is given below:Booting_3
Now issue the command given below:

SELECT DISK 1Booting_4

Here I used SELECT DISK 1 because 1 is the USB drive number on my system. If you have a different number on your system, then you will have to replace 1 with that number.

Step 4: Now use the following list of commands one by one as shown below:



Then close the PowerShell and proceed to next step.

Step 5: Now, this is the step where you have to insert the bootable disk and note down the “drive letter” of your DVD drive. In terms of my computer system, it is “F:”.Booting_6

Now open Command Prompt. If you are using Windows 7/Vista, please open it with administrator rights. For that, you can click on Start menu. Then go to All Programs and click on Accessories and right click on Command Prompt. Then click on Run as Administrator.

Then type the following list of commands as shown below:

BOOTSECT.EXE/NT60 H: (Note: H: is your USB drive letter)


Step 6: Copy all the contents of your Windows 7/Vista installation disk into the USB drive. Then your USB disk is ready to boot and install the operating system for you. Please don’t forget to enable “USB Boot” option and change the boot priority to USB device from hard disk in your BIOS settings.