## Primary Standard Substance

The solution having known concentration is called standard solution. The substance whose standard solution can be prepared directly by dissolving required amount of the substance in definite volume of solution is called primary standard substance and the resulting solution is called primary standard solution.

Oxalic acid, sodium carbonate, sodium thiosulphate etc. are some examples of primary standard substance.
There are some requirements for a substance to be primary standard substance. They are:

•  The substance should be easily available in pure state.
• It should not be hygroscopic in nature.
• It should have good storage property. It means that its strength should last long.
• IT should have fairly high molecular weight to minimize error during weight measuring.

## Normality Factor (f)

It is difficult to measure exact weight of a substance. So, in order to overcome this problem, weight of substance can be measured which is near to the theoretical weight to be measured. When the weight measured is different from the weight to be measured, normality factor comes into action.
Normality factor of a solution may be defined as the ratio of weight measured to the theoretical weight to be measured. Mathematically,

Normality factor (f) = Weight measuredWeight to be measured

The value of normality factor must always be nearly equal to one. The exact normality of a solution is then calculated as:

Exact normality = Normality to be prepared × Normality factor (f)

For example, 0.63 gram of oxalic acid is required to prepare 100ml of 0.1N oxalic acid solution. If 0.65 gram oxalic acid is taken,

Normality factor (f) = 0.650.63 = 1.03
∴ Exact normality = N10 (f = 1.03)

Note: The solution which is standardized with the help of another primary standard solution is called secondary standard solution. In other words, secondary standard solution is the solution whose standard solution cannot be obtained by directly dissolving the required amount of substance in definite volume of solution.

## SLC Model Question Set 1 (English)

Full Marks: 75
Pass Marks: 24

1. Read the following poem and do the activities that follow. (5)

Breathes there the man, with soul so dead,
Who never to himself hath said,

“This is my own, native land!”
Whose heart hath never within him buried?
As home his foot steps he hath turn’d.
From wandering on a foreign strand!

If such there breathe, go mark him well,
For him no minstrel raptures swell,
High though his title, proud his name,
Boundless his wealth as wish can claim,
Despite those titles, power and pelf,
The wretch concentrated all in self,
Living, shall forfeit fair renown
And doubly dying shall go down,
To the vile dust from where he sprung,
Unwept, unhonour’d and unsung.

-Sir Walter Scott

A. Find words from the poem that are opposite in meaning to the following words. (0.5 × 4 = 2)

(i) alive (ii) always (iii) humble (iv) good

B. Answer the following questions. (1 × 3 = 3)

i) Who does the poet want to mark well?
ii) What is far better than heaven?
iii) Who has composed this poem?

2. Read the following passage and do the following activities that follow. (10)

Seconds before Neha entered into her bedroom when, suddenly, she heard an outcry from below. “It’s all over,” she thought as she stiffened and sank down on the stairs. It was then that the baby-boy had slid through the hole, hit the second-floor window shade and landed heavily on Vikram’s chest. His strong arms closed tightly around Kanhaiya. Vikram lost his balance and fell back.

Looking out through her bedroom window grille, sobbing Neha, noticed that the crowd had dispersed-even Kannhaiya was not there. She rushed down and a man on the ground floor told her that her son was safe and had been taken to a nearby clinic.

Kanhaiya who grabbed and clung her was being treated for minor bruises when she approached him. Standing by him was a young stranger who was the savior of her beloved son. “I have no words to express my gratefulness to you,” she kept on telling the stranger. “I was only what I had to do,” said Vikram, “but I wish nobody’d leave small children near windows.”

A. Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct answer. (1 × 3 = 3)
i) When Neha was about to enter into the bedroom, she ……….
(a) heard a loud noise (b) didn’t hear anything (c) could feel silence
ii) Vikram lost his balance when the baby boy ………
(a) pushed him away (b) landed on him (c) embraced him
iii) The word ‘approached’ in the above text means ………
(a) left (b) came near (c) applied

B. Rewrite the following sentences in the correct order. (0.5 × 4 = 2)
i) A man told her that Kanhaiya was safe and had been taken to the clinic.
ii) She didn’t see her son on the crowd below.
iii) Neha got into her bedroom and looked through the window.
iv) She rushed downstairs.

C. Answer the following questions. (1 × 5 = 5)
i) How did the baby boy fall down?
ii) What happeneed to Neha when she heard an outcry?
iii) Why did Vikram fall back?
iv) What did the baby do when his mother reached near him?
v) Why was Neha grateful to Vikram?

3. Read the following text and do the activities given below. (10)

Burma, now known as Myanmar was a free country. But in 1962, the army took control of the country. Ever since then, Myanmar has had a harsh military government. However, many people have struggled to bring freedom back to Myanmar. For her part in the struggle, Aung San Suu Kyi was given the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. In 1988, Aung San Suu Kyi became the leader of the National League for Democracy, a party that opposes Myanmar’s military government. She made speeches against the government and organized protests. In July 1989, Suu Kyi was sentenced to house arrest. Although she remained under house arrest until 1995, she continued her struggle for freedom. Protests in Myanmar and around the world forced the military government to have an election but the military government ignored the results.

Aung San Suu Kyi was given the Nobel Peace Prize because of her peaceful struggle and her bravery. Soldiers have threatened to shoot her, and many of her followers have been sent to jail or killed. However Suu Kyi has never stopped speaking against the government. She has also argued against violence. Instead of fighting with the government, her protests have always been peaceful. Today, Suu Kyi’s struggle goes on, and her support around the world continues to grow.

A. Find words/phrases from the passage that are similar in meanings to the following words. (0.5 × 4 = 2)
a) dominated b) goes up against c) objections d) bloodshed

B. State whether the following statements are true or false. (0.5 × 4 = 2)
i) Myanmar is another name of Burma.
ii) Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962.
iii) The military government accepted the results of an election.
iv) Sun Kyi’s struggle to free Burma from the military government is on.

C. Answer the following questions. (2 × 3 = 6)
i) Why was Aung San Suu Kyi awarded the Nobel Peace Prize?
ii) What made the military government hold an election?
iii) How is Suu Kyi struggling for Burma’s freedom?

 Career Opportunity A well-established Finance company requires dynamic, energetic and managerial skilled personnel for Birgunj and Hetauda office. Interested person may apply showing expected salary and benefits with latest curriculum vitae. Copeis of certificates of academic qualification, copy of citizenship certificate and experience letter with recent passport size photo in closed envelope should be submitted to the address given below by 8th April, 2008. Post Box No.: 805 Makwanpur, Nepal Requirements for Managerial Level: Qualification: Preferably MBA or Master’s Degree in Management/Business/Finance/Economics from a reputed university. Experience: At least 3 years experience as Officer/Junior Officer in bank and finance company’s credit and marketing field. Good command in computer operation is must. Age: Not exceeding 35 years on the closing date. Salary and Benefits: Negotiable.

A. Choose the right answer from the given alternatives: (1 × 3 = 3)
a. The word ‘personnel means …… (staff, officer, employer)
b. To expect is to …… (give, want, hope)
c. The word ‘reputed’ is similar in meaning to the word …… (known, famous, prestigious)

B. Complete the following sentences supplying appropriate word/phrases from the text: (1 × 4 = 4)
a. The employer is …..
b. Candidates should submit their applications on or before …..
c. Besides the academic qualifications …… skill is also must.
d. The candidate should not be over …… years.

C. Answer the following questions: (2 × 4 = 8)
a. What things should be submitted along with the application?
b. What is the required qualification for a candidate?
c. How much salary is the company offering?
d. What type of experience should the candidate have?

5. Complete the following dialogue with the appropriate sentences in the box given below:
Receptionist: ………………….
Tourist          : Good evening ………………..
Receptionist: Yes, madam. What type of room do you want?
Tourist          : I want one single in the ground floor.
Receptionist: I am sorry, madam ……………….
Tourist          : What about on the first floor?
Tourist          : What facilities do you provide here?
Receptionist: ……………………
Tourist          : Well. I want to book a room for a week.
Receptionist: ……………………

 a. There is no single room lying vacant at the moment on the ground floor. b. Of course! Here is a brochure giving all information about the hotel. c. Good evening. Can I help you, madam? d. O.K. Thank you, madam. e. Have you got any room vacant? f. We have one on the first floor. g. Do I have to pay only in advance? h. Could I book one of the rooms for you in advance, madam?

6. Construct a readable story with the help of outlines given in the box below: (6)

 A poor village boy walking door to door for job-finds a wallet containing a large amount of money-an identity card of the owner in the wallet-the boy returns the wallet to the owner-the owner pleased-praised his honesty-gives him a good job

7. Write an essay on ‘A School Excursion’, in about 200 words. Use the following clues.

 The purpose of the excursion…. preparation for it…. the members of the party…. the journey arrival at the destination…. how the day was spent there…. pleasure derived from the tip…. conclusion

8. Rewrite the following sentences choosing the best alternative given in the brackets: (0.5 × 12 = 6)
a. Rabina found …….. one rupee coin on the way. (a, an, the)
b. These students are obedient …….. their teachers. (at, to, for)
c. I am a student, ……..? (aren’t I, am I, don’t I)
d. The police …….. recently caught the criminals. (has, have, had)
e. Prem doesn’t like it but Rina …….. (like, likes, liked)
f. “Does it have any sense?” The statement of this question is “……..” (It have some sense, It has any sense, It has some sense)
g. Bandana …….. her key. She still can’t enter the house. (lost, has lost, loses)
h. My father asked us …….. (what he wants, what did he want, what he wanted)
i. Someone has stolen my pen. My pen …….. (is stolen, has been stolen, has stolen)
j. …….. his intelligence, he failed the exam. (in spite of, because of, although)
k. Unless you invite her, she …….. come. (would, wouldn’t, won’t)
l. The people …….. the leaders keep their words. (has, get, make)

9. Choose the correct word from the brackets to complete the passage below: (0.5 × 10 = 5)

 One morning …….. (in/on/at) early April, I …….. (woke/wake/awake) up to see my friend Sherlock Holmes standing by my beside. I blinked at him in surprise. …….., Watson (I was sorry to wake you up/ I am sorry to wake you up/ I have been sorry to wake you up) he said, “…….. (but/because/and) we have a client waiting in the sitting room. She is a young lady. It seems she …….. (has/have/had) something very urgent to communicate. You would be interested in hearing waht she has to say, ……..? (wouldn’t you/ won’t you/ didn’t you)?” “Of course I would, my dear fellow,” I said. I dressed quickly and …….. (a/an/the) client was a young lady dressed in black saaree.

THE END