Jan 202014

Helicobacter pylori colonized the stomach of more than half of the world’s population, and the infection continues to play a key role in the pathogenesis of the number of gastro duodenal disease. Campylobacter pylori is the previous name of Helicobacter Pylori, a types of bacterium found in the stomach. Colonization of the gastritis mucosa with helicobacter pylori result in the development of chronic

gastritis in all infected individuals and in a subset of patients, chronic gastritis progress to complications i.e. ulcer disease, gastritis neo-plasias, some distinct extra gastric disorder. However, gastritis has no adverse consequences for most hosts and emerging evidence suggests that Helicobacter Pylori prevalence is inversely related to gastroesophagela reflux disease and allergic disorders. These observations indicate that eradication due to the potentially beneficial effects conferred by gastric inflammation.

Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori

Antacids in liquid or tablet form are the common treatment for mild gastritis. Antacids neutralize stomach acid and provide fast pain relief. When antacids don’t provide enough relief, medications cause as cimetidine, ranitidine, nizatidine of famotidine that helps to reduce the amount of acid in the stomach produce are often prescribed.

Helicobacter Pylori

Helicobacter Pylori

An even more effective way to limit stomach acid: pumps within acid-secreting stomach cells. Proton pump inhibitors reduce acid by blocking the action of these small pumps. This class or medication includes omeprazole, Lansoprazole, rabeprazole and esomeprazole. Proton pump inhibitors also appear to inhibit Helicobacter Pylori activity. Cytoprotective agents are

designed to help protect the tissues that line your stomach and small intestine. They include the medications sucralfate and misoprostol. If NSADs are being taken regularly, one of these medications are being taken regularly, one of these medications to protect the stomach may also be taken. Another cytoprotective agent is bismuth subsalicylate. In addition to protecting

the lining of stomach and intestine, bismuth preparations appear to inhibit Helicobacter Pylori activity as well. Several regimens reused to treat Helicobacter Pylori infection. Most use a combination of two antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor. Sometimes bismuth is also added to the regiment. The antibiotic acids in destroying the bacteria, and the acid blocker or proton pump inhibitor relieves pain and nausea, heals inflammation, may increase the antibiotic’s effectiveness.

Diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori

Typically, a diagnosis is made based on the patient’s description of his or her symptoms. If a diagnosis is not possible based on these symptoms, however, other methods are used. Tests for blood cell continued Helicobacter Pylori, and pregnancy: and liver, kidney, gall bladder and pancreas function, may be ordered. Urinalysis may be used or a stool sample

taken to look for blood in the stool. X-rays may be ordered as well as ECGS. An endoscopy may be performed, where a flexible probe with a camera on the end is sent into the stomach to check for stomach lining inflammation and mucous erosion. At the time, a stomach biopsy may be taken to test for gastritis and a variety of other conditions.

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SLC Model Question Set 2 (Social Studies)

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Jan 202014

SLC Model Question Set 2 (Social Studies)

Answer all the questions:

Group ‘A’

A. Very short questions. 8×1=8
1. According to the statistics of the census of the year 2068, the population of Nepal is 2,64,94,504. Find the out the population density of Nepal on the basis of above facts and the area of Nepal.
2. Corruptions are a burning problem specially in developing countries like Nepal. Write its any two effects.
3. The election for the constituent assembly has just completed. How do you justify this assembly will formulate the new constitution? Write in a sentence.
4. Write a feature of desert vegetation.
5. Which symbols are used to denote the following facts in the man?
a) Pass                                            b) Industry
6. Why do most African countries and Nepal share the similar economic condition? Give reason in a sentence.
7. The period between 2007 B.S. to 2017 B.S. was full of confusion, instability and lawlessness. In opinion, how far were political parties and their activities responsible to create this situation? Write your logic in one point.
8. Give the introduction of Black Hand society in a sentence.

Group ‘B’

B. Short answers questions. 14×4=56
9. Various small and large scale projects are running in Nepal. But most of them either remain incomplete or do not complete on the targeted time. Highlight any four measures to be adopted by the government for the effective implementation of such projects.
10. Central Development Region has the highest population and Far Western Development Region has the least population. Mention any four measures to decrease population pressure on Central Development Region.
11. Involvement of women in development is today’s important need. But most of the women of Nepal are far behind in every sector. Write a paragraph, describing the policy adopted in Nepal for woman involvement.
12. Show the following statistics in a bar graph using appropriate scale and title.
Number of secondary schools in Nepal – 2067/68

Development regions Number
Eastern 1427
Western 1642
Mid Western 867
Far Western 750

13. Suppose you are going to participate in a cultural programme organized by your school and practicing hard. But one of your friends suggested you to learn dance instead of our classical and folk dances. What would be your reply for him/her? Present your views in four points.
14. Our national days are celebrated only for formality because some people think that they have no importance and relevance. Prepare a paragraph on for or against the given statement.
15. Untouchability is a bad social practice but it is still existed in most of the societies. If our societies were without untouchability, what positive effects would be there? Make a list of any four of them.
16. Girl trafficking is an illegal act and social crime. Despite several efforts made from government and non-government sectors to control it, expected success has not been achieved. Mention any four causes behind it.
17. Why are political parties important in democratic country? Justify with any four examples.
18. Why is Tropical Monsoon region more suitable for agriculture? Describe.
19. Show the following historical events in time line.

Date Events
a) B.S. 2007 Introduction of democracy
b) B.S. 2011 Death of King Tribhuwan
c) B.S. 2013 Formation of the government under the chairmanship of Dr. K. Singh
d) B.S. 2015 First General Election of Parliament

20. Tourism is one of the main income sources of Nepal but it has created environmental and cultural pollution too. Write a letter to the director of Nepal Tourism Board about promoting tourism without any harm on our environment and culture.
21. Explain the historical background of the establishment of the UNO.
22. As a member country of the UNO, how has Nepal been contributing to fulfill the objectives of it? Discuss.

Group ‘C’

C. Long answers questions. 4×9=36
23. How is check and balance maintained among the three organs of government? How is the council of ministers formed according to the present constitution of Nepal? Explain briefly the importance of executive.
24. Insert the following items by drawing an outline map of Nepal. River Mechi, Khaptad lake, Mt. Lhote, Mahendranagar, Siddhartha highway, Major cotton production area.

Insert the following items in the given map of North America. Hudson Bay, New Found Land, Victoria Island, River Yokon, Arctic Ocean, Great Lakes, Rocky Mountains, Ontario, Death valley.
25. Draft a dialog including four causes and four effects of world war-I.
You must have visited any historical or religious places. Write a report on the basis of following headings:
a) Introduction        b) Objectives        c) Methodology
d) Findings               e) Conclusion & Recommendations
26. Nepal has immense potentiality of tourism development but we have not been able to exploit it for economic development. Justify the statement with reference to the potentiality and problems seen in the tourism sector of Nepal.

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