Jan 222014

What is Polio?

Polio (or poliomyelitis) is a disease caused by poliovirus. IT can cause lifelong paralysis (can’t move parts of the body), and it can be deadly. But, the polio vaccine can protect against polio.

What are the symptoms of poliovirus infection?

Most people who get infected with poliovirus do not have any symptoms. A small number of people (4 to 8 people out of 100) will have flu-like symptoms. These symptoms usually last 2 to 5 days

then go away on their own. In rare cases, poliovirus infection can be very serious. About 1 out 100 people will have weakness or paralysis in their arms, legs, or both. This paralysis or weakness can last a lifetime.

How serious is Polio?

The risk of lifelong paralysis is very serous. Even children who seem to fully recover can develop new muscle pain, weakness, or paralysis as adults, 30 or 40 years later. About 2 to 5 children out of 100 who have paralysis from polio die because the virus affects the muscles that help them breathe.

How does polio spread?

Poliovirus is very contagious. The virus lives in an infected person’s throat and intestines. IT spreads through contact with the faeces (stool) of an infected person and through droplets from a sneeze or cough. You can get infected with polio if you have stool on your hands and you touch your mouth. Also, if you put objects, like toys, that have stool on them into your mouth, you/your baby can get infected. An infected person may spread the virus to others immediately before and usually 1 to 2 weeks after developing symptoms. The virus may live in an infected person’s faeces for many weeks. It can contaminate food and water when people do no wash their hands properly.

An article related to the status of Polio eradication in Nepal is given below:

Three years ago on August 30, Prashuna (name changed) of Rautahat, who was 1 year and 10 months old then, was diagnosed with polio. Now she is four and struggles to cope with the crippling disease. Prashuna is the last reported case of polio and as a success in halting the spread of the disease, Nepal is at the juncture of eradicating the infectious disease.

On January 13th this year, India too marked its success in stopping new cases of polio in children. Rukhsar Khatoon of Shahapar village, West Bengal, became the last child to have caught the disease on January 13th, 2011. Many say Khatoon is a symbol of hope that no other child would be inflicted by the disease.

India and Nepal share an open border, making cross-border transmission of disease including polio. India reported 741 polio cases in 2009 which came tumbling down to just one in 2011. It now shares the seat with Southeast Asian countries in polio control. While neighbours Nepal and India are new comers in taming polio, nine other members of the World Health Organization – Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste – have been able to halt the disease for more than five years.

The WHO is assessing the polio status of all 11 members in Southeast Asia in February verifying that there are no children under the age of five with polio. With a positive report, Nepal and other nations will qualify for polio-free status after eradicating smallpox.

“India’s commitment to eradicate polio has contributed to our success,” said Dr. Yasobardhan Pradhan, public health expert and former director general of the Department of Health Services.

Polio is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus that invades the nervous system, and can cause total paralysis in a matter of hours. The virus enters the body through the mouth and multiplies in the intestine.

Initial symptoms are fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck and pain in the limbs. WHO states that one in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis (usually in the legs) among which 5 to 10 percent die when their breathing muscles stiffen.

Not just Nepal, the success in halting the spread of this disease has been phenomenal worldwide. The first initiative was taken by WHO in 1988 which adopted a resolution for the worldwide eradication of polio. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative led by national governments and supported by the WHO, Rotary International, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNICEF, and supported by key partners including the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation began.

Ever since, according to the WHO, polio cases have decreased by over 99 percent since 1988, from an estimated 350,000 cases in more than 125 endemic countries then, to 223 reported cases in 2012. In 2013, only parts of three countries – Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria – in the world remain endemic for the disease.

Following the 1988 resolution, Nepal introduced polio vaccination under the government’s routine immunization programme with nine other vaccines administered to children below five. Polio gets particular focus on the National Immunization Day marked since 1996.

Beginning from December 21st, the government is running a national polio vaccination programme aimed at covering 4.2 million children under the age of five.

The first phase of vaccination ran on December 21st and 22nd in 68 districts. The second phase will take place on January 25th and 26th. “These campaigns and regular immunization against polio have helped us achieve the status,” said Dr. Sinendra Upreti, director of the Child Health Division.

He said that on the second day of the campaign, they have been reaching out to some two to three percent children that do not visit the vaccination centres. “This ensures that all children are vaccinated,” said Dr. Upreti.

Dr. Upreti attributes the success to the surveillance conducted from over 10 sites across the country. Each site has surveillance medical officers who look into the children affected by polio.

Despite the success, officials see challenges ahead. Dr. Shyam Raj Upreti, former director of the CHD, believes that despite priority, people have started losing their interest in vaccinating their children against polio.

We need to bring innovative approaches so that people will be aware that no matter how many times they immunize their children against polio, it will do no harm,” said Dr. Shyam.

He said that vaccinating children in urban populations has also been pretty tough.

Source: The Kathmandu Post

Jan 222014

Model Question Set 3 (Social Studies)

Attempt all the questions
Group ‘A’
Write very short answer of the following questions: 8×1=8

1. Why is there no proportionate development in five development regions? Write in a sentence.
2. Girl trafficking is increasing instead of decreasing. Write its cause in a sentence.
3. “In Loktantra, election is the most important and ultimate weapon to choose the government.” Write in one sentence.
4. What do you mean by selvas?
5. Which symbols are used to denote the following facts in map?

a) Mountain Range                              b) Temple

6. Write one feature of equatorial climate condition.
7. What should the political leaders do to make the constitution according to their promise?
8. Mention the character of Hitler in a sentence.

Group ‘B’
Write short answer of the following questions: 14×4=56
9. Describe the physical and economic conditions of Mid-Western Development Region.
10. Write any four importance of solar power like Karnali Ujyalo Karyakram in the context of lacking hydro-electricity throughout the nation.
11. Write the importance of education in generating skilled man power in four points.
12. Show the following items in a bar graph:

Development Region Technical School
EDR 27
CDR 41
WDR 22

13. Write a letter to your friend who is in UK mentioning the historical, religious and cultural aspects of Lumbini area which is enlisted in the world heritage site.
14. “Folk song and folk music represent the identity of being Nepalese.” But the youths at present are forgetting this fact. What do you think should be done by the government to promote it in the international level? Write four points.
15. Many organizations at local level, national level and international level have been working against girl trafficking. But this problem is increasing instead of decreasing in the developing country like Nepal. What kind of efforts from which sectors can be launched to minimize this problem? Write any four ways.
16. “Corruption is a major social problem in developing countries like Nepal.” Give your opinion in four points how development activities can go ahead smoothly in the countries where there is less corruption.
17. There is doubt whether the representative of constituent Assembly II will be able to promulgate the constitution according to the will and aspiration of the people.” What roles can civil society play so that they will be compelled to promulgate the constitution on time?
18. Differentiate between tropical Monsoon climate and tropical desert climate in four points.
19. Show the following incidents in appropriate date and time line.
20. Point out the four problems created by foreign employment in Nepal.
21. Who are peace keeping force? What are their duties? Write briefly.
22. Write the power and functions of UN General Assembly.

Group ‘C’
Write long answer of the following questions: 4×9=36
23. State the works of all the constitutional organs. Do all these works help the country to run smoothly? Give your opinion critically.
24. Draw the map of Nepal and insert the following facts.
Bigunj, B.P. Highway, Jute growing area, Ganesh himal, Tilicho Lake, Janaki Temple.

Insert the following items in the given map of North America.
Cobalt mining area, Mt. Rocky, Superior lake, Taiga, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Ontario, St. Lawrence river, Tropic of cancer, Quebec
25. Describe the causes and consequences of II world war.

You must have been on a study tour of a famous historical and cultural area. Prepare a report on the basis of your study visit with the help of following heads.
a) Visit place and subject of study.
b) Objectives of the study.
c) Methods of the study.
d) Findings from the study.
e) Conclusion and suggestion.
26. “Mountain regions can be the world’s tourist destination.” Justify this with your opinion and describe the challenges and measures to develop tourism in Nepal.

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