Jan 232014

SLC Model Question Set 4 (EPH)

Health, Environment and Population
Class: 10                                    Time: 2:15 hours                                      F.M.: 75
Subject: EPH                                Level: Secondary                                 P.M.: 30

Group ‘A’

Write very short answers to the following questions:                         10×1=10

1. What is the annual population growth rate of our country according to the census of 2011 A.D.?
2. How do you calculate density of population?
3. Write any one base of quality of life.
4. What altitude snow line is fixed in western Nepal?
5. Write a measure to mitigate the adverse effects on the ecosystem of Terai region.
6. How many species of mammals are found in Nepal?
7. Write any one importance of biodiversity.
8. Define urbanization.
9. Name the virus which causes cholera?
10. When was Nepal Heart Foundation established?

Group ‘B’

Write short answers to any thirteen of the following questions:        13×5=65

11. What is demography? Describe in brief the size of population and population growth rate of our country.
12. If the Crude Birth Rate, Crude Death Rate and Net Migration Rate of the country is 50, 30 and 40 respectively in 2010 A. D., calculate Population Growth Rate.
13. List and describe the social factors affecting birth.
14. “Quality of life depends on satisfaction which is different according to geographical region and the way of living style.” Clarify it.
15. Describe in brief the ecosystem of hilly region.
16. What are the major activities conducted on environment conservation?
17. “Nepal is very rich in biodiversity.” Justify the statement.
18. Write short notes on any two:

a) Red panda
b) Asiatic rock python
c) Ex-situ conservation

19. Show the inter-relationship of population, environment and development with appropriate chart.
20. What is sustainable development? Explain any three importance of it.
21. Differentiate between syphilis and gonorrhea.
22. Give an introduction to Rickets and write down any four symptoms of it.
23. What is balanced diet? Write down the methods of preserving nutrients.
24. Describe the major health problems of Nepal.
25. What is meant by curative health service? What are the services provided by hospitals in Nepal?

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 Posted by at 9:10 pm
Jan 232014

With the cases of new diseases being reported, the demand for antigen for immunization against them has been growing. While there are 27 types of vaccines available worldwide, Nepalese get only ten antigens, exposing them to serious health threats.

The multi-year immunization programme endorsed by the Ministry of Health and Population has targeted to add four more basic vaccines to its vault by 2016.

These include Pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination which are remedies to pneumonia and diarrhoea, respectively.

However, the major challenge for the stakeholders is the cost that will swell after additional vaccines are introduced. At present, over 60 percent of the total immunization cost is born by donors while the government share of the expenditure is limited to 40 percent.

The government has made efforts to explore alternatives for the financial sustainability of the expanded immunization programme. As an initiative, the government is working on creating the Immunization Trust Fund (ITF), which will raise funds from the government, donors and corporate agencies.

Recently, the Ministry of Health and Population endorsed a regulation to initiate the process for setting up the fund. “It’s the duty of the government to maintain the ongoing immunization programme with its own might. We may not always get support from donor organizations,” said Dr. Shyam Upreti, the chief of the Immunization Division under the Department of Health. Therefore, the fund will be used as a sustainable source for financing the immunization programme in the coming day.s

After the ITF comes to effect, there will be one-door policy for the immunization programme. The Interim Constitution guarantees people’s right to health and immunization.

According to Upreti, various internationally tested vaccines have not been adopted in Nepal due to the lack of adequate funds. The vaccines being used in the country target children, with no measures for the immunization of elderly people. The annual cost of immunization at present is Rs. 1.6 billion – Rs. 3,000 per child. It will increase significantly with the introduction of four new antigens possibly by 2016.

Immunization has a pivotal role in reducing under-five mortality to 38 and infant deaths to 32 per 1,000 live births by 2015, as envisioned by the Millennium Development Goals in Health.