May 252015

Time: 3 hours

Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 35

Answer all the questions.

1. a) Put the following words in alphabetical order. [2]
recent, recover, reclusive, real, record, recoil

b) Choose the correct guide words for each headword. [3]

Head Word Guide Word
i) wither
ii) ghee
iii) pinch
i) wise/witness
ii) witter/wood
iii) gesture/get
v) pilot/ping
vi) pink/pit

2. a) Choose the appropriate word from the brackets. [3]
i) The new rule will come into …… (affect, effect) from the next month.
ii) Mr. Thapa is the …… (principal, principle) of this campus.
iii) He purchased a dozen of pencils from the …… (stationery, stationary) shop.
iv) You have to …… (practise, practice) all the grammatical exercises given in your textbooks.
v) Don’t take your teachers’ …… (advice, advise) for granted.
vi) The …… (new, knew) chairman will start his work from tomorrow.

b) Write the antonyms of the following words: [2]
i) cheerful      ii) fast      iii) near      iv) regular

3. Write a dialogue between two friends describing their first day in college. [5]

4. Answer any two of the following questions. [10 × 2 = 20]
a) Narrate the story of ‘The House Call’. (The House Call)
b) What changes does the poet notice when he returns to the poplar fields after a long time? (The Poplar Field)
c) What are Barbara Holland’s opinions about single and multiple children? Describe. (Speaking of Children)

5. Give short answers to any three of the following questions: [3 × 5 = 15]
a) What are the features of migraine headaches? (In Bed)
b) What are the obstacles faced by Phoenix Jackson on her way to the city? (A Worn Path)
c) Into what groups has Rosenblatt organized his numerous examples of verbal mis-steps? (Oops! How’s That Again)
d) Would you call Supriya a betrayer? Give reasons for your answer. (Malini)

6. Write appropriate prepositions in the gaps. [10 × 0.5 = 5]
a) When the bull began to run …… me, I jumped …… the fence …… the next field.
b) She ran …… the corridor, and …… the stairs into the basement.
c) His bullet whistled …… me ear, so I shot him right …… the eyes.
d) The prisoner jumped ….. the window, ran …… the street, and jumped …… a car that was waiting for him on the other side.

7. Read the following conversations between A and B, and make similar conversations beginning with the sentences given in each. [5 × 1 = 5]
A: He works hard, doesn’t he?
B: Oh! I don’t know, I work much harder than he does.
A: Of course – nobody works as hard as you do.

a) He gets up early, doesn’t he?
b) She played well, didn’t she?
c) They live dangerously, don’t they?
d) She behaved badly, didn’t she?
e) He can dance beautifully, can’t she?

8. Read the following illustration, and make similar conversations based on the remarks. Use the points or periods of time given. [5 × 1 = 5]
Example: I know your sister. (September)
A: How long have you known her?
B: I’ve known her since September.
C: (to A) When did he meet her?
A: He met her in September.

a) I’m engaged now, you know. (July)
b) I’ve got a movie camera. (Christmas)
c) My leg’s hurting. (8 o’clock this morning)
d) I know that joke already. (years and years)
e) I’m a graduate now. (a fortnight)

9. Read the following example and change the sentences given in the same way. [5 × 1 = 5]
a) With although/even though      b) With in spite of/despite
Example: He looked very scruffy, he got the job.
A: Although/Even though he looked very scruffy, he got the job.
B: In spite of/Despite his scruffy appearance, he got the job.

a) She was 85 years old, but she still lived a very active life.
b) Her parents objected, but she still insisted on getting married.
c) The acoustics in the hall is poor, but it is still regularly used for concerts.
d) We’ve known each other for a long time, but we still call each other by our surnames.
e) Video machines are expensive, but lots of people are buying them.

10. Answer any two of the following: [2 × 10 = 20]
a) Write an account of the most important event in the history of your country. (about 150 words)
b) Write a letter to your friend whom you have not seen for a long time. Tell him/her what you and your family are doing these days.
c) Write a brief geographical description of your country. Include only important and interesting information. (about 150 words)

11. Read the following passage and answer the questions given. [5 × 2 = 10]

In London, I get up every morning at 7:00 AM. I’m not allowed to get up any later because I have to prepare breakfast for the children. Sometimes they drink milk, but they prefer to drink tea, so usually I make tea with bread and eggs. After the children have eaten breakfast, I walk with them to their school. After that, I return to the house and clean it. On Wednesdays, I have to wash the children’s clothes and sometimes they ask me if I can wash the car as well.
At 3:00 o’clock, I have to collect the children from school. I would like to help them with their housework, but their parents won’t let me. In the evening, we eat a yummy dinner that tastes really good. After dinner, I am allowed to go out. I like to go and watch films in the local cinema. I don’t have to work on Saturday or Sunday. Then I visit interesting places around London.

a) What does an au pair boy do?
b) Why is he not allowed to get up later than 7am?
c) Why doesn’t Gautam help with the children’s homework?
d) What does he do after dinner?
e) Do you think Gautam likes being an au pair in London? Give reasons for your answer.

Jun 052014

The world will face a massive environmental crisis in the 21st century unless immediate action is taken, according to a report issued by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) on September 15, 1999. UNEP billed the report, titled Global Environment Outlook 2000 (GEO-2000), as the most authoritative assessment of environmental issues ever produced.

Policy-related effort towards environmental protection in Nepal has been carried out since the Sixth Plan. By ratifying various international treaties and conventions on environment, different projects have been formulated and launched in order to implement the concept of sustainable development in the context of Nepal. Environment Protection Act, 1997 and Regulation, 1997, have been implemented. It is essential to pass the concept of environmental management in development programs at all levels, from central to local level, through decentralized programs. High emphasis has been given to the environmental aspect in Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Agenda for Nepal. Since environment is a multi-sector and multidimensional subject, it is vital to promote the participation of the government, NGOs, local agencies and the private sector in the environment sector. Therefore, by including all stakeholders in environmental management, development efforts should focus towards the proper management of natural resources and achievement of sustainability in its use. Likewise, it is also essential to give priority to the development of human resources and utilization of available human resources in environmental management.

Review of the current situation

With the objective of integrating environmental management with development, 68 projects have been evaluated according to the policy of getting Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) done. Cleanliness and public awareness programs have been launched for the environmental improvement at local level. Inclusion of environmental aspects in the formulation of plans by District Development Committees has been institutionalized. Environment education has been incorporated in the curriculum from the primary level to the University level thereby; producing high-level human resources at the national level.

For the control of vehicular pollution and industrial disposal, 14 different bylaws have been formulated and implemented. The task of safely storing persistent organic pollutants remaining with Nepal has been completed, whereas for safe disposal, a national implementation plan has been prepared. IN the course of implementing international conventions on environment, national notices according to the Convention on Climate Change and national reports on the implementation status of the Convention on Desertification have been prepared. Whereas in the context of implementing the Convention on the Protection of Ozone Layer, Ozone Depleting Substances Consumption Rules, 2001 has been implemented to prohibit import of ozone layer depleting substances.

In order to implement the Convention on Biological Diversity, strategy implementation plan on ecological diversity has been prepared. Sustainable Development Agenda for Nepal (SDAN) program is in operation. There has been wide expansion in the role of local agency, NGOs, community organizations and the private sector in the sector of environmental protection.


  • Inadequate priority by the concerned authorities to environmental management policies while implementing their programs.
  • Lack of clear balance between different sectoral policies/programs and environmental policies/programs.
  • Lack of inter-agency coordination.
  • Insufficient level of awareness on environment protection in targeted communities.
  • Lack of coordination in tasks conducted by the NGOs and donor agencies.


Effective implementation of formulated policy on environmental management as well as EIA report along with approved bylaws, and ensuring an individual’s right to live in a healthy environment exist as major challenges.


  • Increase in public awareness.
  • Increase in bilateral and multilateral assistance.
  • Production of human resource within the country.
  • Increase in the commitment towards international treaties and agreements.

Long Term Vision

The long term vision of environmental management is to create a clean and healthy environment through effective environmental management and to achieve sustainable development through the wise use of natural resources.


  • To emphasize protection, restoration and sensible use of natural environment.
  • To promote sustainable development through people’s participation in the campaigns to mitigate urban pollution, to make rural area clean and beautiful and to ensure an individual’s right to live in a clean environment.
  • To implement national and international commitment on environmental management effectively.


  • Launch development programs by internalizing environmental management.
  • Mobilize non-government private sector, local agencies and the public in increasing public awareness on environment.
  • Determine and implement additional bylaws on air, water, soil and sound pollution.

Policy and working policies

  • Contributions will be made towards achieving the goal of sustainable development. Through protection, conservation and management of natural resources and through pollution prevention and control.
  • By integrating environmental aspects in social and economic development programs through EIA system, improvements will be made in the quality of environment by means of environment-friendly development.
  • Environmental monitoring and auditing will be institutionalized. Through an effective implementation of the approved EIA report.
  • Public awareness on protection and conservation of environment will be increased.
  • Through proper development and utilization of knowledge, skill and capacity in the environment sector, national capacity will be enhanced.
  • Participation of local agencies, community and NGOs in the environment sector will be promoted.
  • Treaties and conventions, to which Nepal has endorsed, will be implemented.
  • Carbon trade will be promoted to achieve benefit from Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol.
  • Existing bylaws on water and air quality will be implemented effectively. Additional bylaws will be formulated and implemented to measure expected standard of water, air, soil and noise.
  • In order to mitigate effects on environment, necessary mechanism will be developed and implemented under the principles of “Polluters Pay” and “Pollution Prevention Pays”.

Major programs

  • Public awareness program: To produce, distribute and publicize audio visual materials on environmental management and impact mitigation.
  • National heritage preservation program: To renovate and preserve nationally important temples and monasteries, rivers, lakes, ponds, wetlands etc.
  • Implementation of international commitments
    • To publicize and implement conventions on environment to which Nepal has endorsed.
    • To formulate a national policy on climate change.
    • To promote carbon trading to achieve benefit from Clean Development Mechanism under to Kyoto Protocol.
  • Promotive program: To encourage and felicitate individuals and organizations, contributing to environmental conservation and preservation.
  • River cleaning program in Kathmandu valley and urban areas: To control pollution, in the rivers of Kathmandu valley and in urban areas.
  • Program on safe disposal of persistent pollutants: To safely dispose POPs remaining in Nepal.
  • Formulation, implementation and monitoring of bylaws:
    • To implement bylaws on water and air quality effectively and to formulate additional bylaws to measure expected standard of water, air, soil and noise.
    • To measure pollution in sensitive areas of Kathmandu valley through micro-level study of CO2, CO, NOx, SO2, O3 and dust particles in order to reduce air pollution in the valley.
    • To measure noise levels in sensitive areas in Kathmandu with significant level of noise pollution, and to review the study data.
    • To monitor the implementation of air quality bylaw to control indoor pollution.
    • To control vehicular pollution.
    • To organize and assist in organizing programs to implement bylaws.