|The human evolution didn’t come to the present stage in a short time. It took millions of years for the development of humans till the present stage. For coming to the present stage, the humans went through different other stages in which they gradually developed their organs, body structure, mental capacity, skills etc. One of those stages is the stage of Early True Man or pre-historic man.|
The early true men or pre-historic men are one of the oldest ancestors of present human species. About ten to twenty lakh years ago, in the Pleistocene epoch, the ape-men gave rise to pre-historic men. However, these pre-historic men became extinct later. There are some important species of pre-historic men which were discovered in the form of fossils in the different parts of the world. Those species of pre-historic men are listed below with description.
- Homo habilis: Homo habilis is the first known species of the genus Homo. The fossils of this species of early true men were found under the land of Eastern Africa. These men were four to five feet tall and they weighed about fifty kilograms. They had larger brain than that of Australopithecus (a type of ape-man). The brain of these men had the capacity of about 680 cubic centimetre. These are the men who used sharp tools made up of stones for hunting. They walked on two legs and were omnivorous.
- Homo erectus: Homo erectus was another species of early true men whose fossils were found to be about five to fifteen lakh years old. They existed in the Pleistocene epoch. There are some important fossils of Homo erectus which include the following types of early men:
- Java Man: The scientific name of Java man is Homo erectus erectus. The fossils of this man was found in the seventeen lakh years old rocks of Pleistocene epoch. These rocks were found in the Solo river of Java. Likewise, the rocks of this epoch were also found and excavated in China. These men were five feet tall and their weight was about seventy kilograms. The faces of these men were prognathous, with under developed chin and flat nose. They had heavy and prominent eyebrows like that of ape-men. Their teeth were large but they were similar to the teeth of present humans. They had heavy jaws. While describing about their food habits, they were omnivorous and also probably cannibals (organisms killing other organisms of their own species for food). The cranial capacity of these men was about 900 cubic centimetre. These men were the first ones who used fire for defense, hunting and cooking. They weren’t solitary and they used to live in groups inside caves.
- Peking Man: The scientific name of Peking man is Homo erectus pekinesis. The fossils of this pre-historic man was found in Peking (now Beijing), China. The fossils of these men are said to be from the Pleistocene epoch and they were about five to six lakh years old. The cranial capacity of these men was about 1075 cubic centimetre. They also used artificial tools for hunting and they also learned to use fire. Like Java men, they also used to live in groups inside caves. It is also said that they used some kind of language for communication.
- Heidelberg Man: The fossils of Heidelberg men were found in Heidelberg of Germany in the year 1907 A.D. The scientific name of this man is Homo erectus heidelbergenesis. The fossils of these men were about ten lakh years old. They had massive jaws but the teeth were of moderate size like those of modern men. These men had no chin.
- Atlantic Man: The scientific name of Atlantic man is Homo erectus mauritanicus. The fossils of the jaws of these men were found in the six lakh years old Pleistocene rocks of Algeria and Africa. These fossils were found in the year 1955 A.D. Similar types of fossils were found from other countries like Hungary and Morocco. It is also found that Atlantic men were the close relatives of Java men and Peking men. But these men were probably less intelligent. The cranial capacity of Atlantic men was 1360 cubic centimetre.