May 202014
 


Overall development of our country depends upon agriculture and rural sector infrastructure development. Rural sector development, in turn, depends on agriculture, and various kinds of industries, businesses and employment opportunities. Productivity of agriculture and industry is the combined result of technology being used or to be used, complimentary inputs such as irrigation, fertilizer, supply of raw materials and marketing and easy access to rural credit.

Though there were various programs operating in the past for agriculture and rural development, expected increase in production could not be realized. It is, therefore, necessary to increase the access of people to agriculture and rural credit by removing the constraints faced in the past.

Review of achievement in the Tenth Plan

Under the Plan, it was envisaged to mobilize all the banks and financial institutions involved in rural credit under a single coordinated system with the Agricultural Development Bank playing the lead role in providing agriculture credit. It was also intended that commercial banks and other development banks would be mobilized, for their participation in such credit operations. The Plan also envisaged women and the unemployed youth to use credit facilities. Besides, mobilization of Rural Self Reliance Fund (RSRF) with added long-term capital provision was expected to enable the deprived people’s access to micro finance, extending credit coverage to the maximum in rural areas through micro-finance institutions by reforming institutional structure. The program list also included gradual privatization of rural development banks, and the Nepal Rastra Bank to monitor the progress of the rural credit target.

During the Plan period, supply of agriculture’s target was by 5.5%, including credit supplied by the cooperatives. If cooperatives are excluded, the credit supply was 0.1% less than the target. Deprived sector credit ratio of 3% enforced as mandatory for the commercial banks also included credit made available to the individuals of this class going for overseas employment. Besides, the wholesale credit to the Nepal Rastra Bank licensed cooperatives and Rural Micro Finance Development Center (RMDC) and their deposits were also counted towards meeting the said mandatory credit ratio. Continue reading »

Mar 282013
 

Waste Water Management

waste water management

Water management is the field of handling waste water, to make it suitable to either be recycles into a water system or to be disposed of in an environmentally- conscious manner. Waste water management is one of the larger problems facing most major cities in the modern world, with overflow causing severe pollution problems including water pollution and increasing population densities stretching existing infrastructure to the breaking point. Both mechanical and biological processes are utilized in water waste management, to get rid of undesirable particulate matter and to eliminate any potentially harmful pathogens.

Sources of waste water and their management

Cleanliness
We use water for cleaning purposes. In our daily life, water is used for bathing, washing clothes, cleaning utensils, washing fruits, vegetables or other edibles, cleaning floors and many more. The waste water produced after these cleanliness activities is contaminated with dust, germs, soap, detergent etc.


Waste water produced in this way should be collected separately in a pit and should be purified using effective technologies. This waste water can even be utilized for watering the plants in the garden.

Health Centers
Water is used in hospitals, health centers and research centers as a solvent and cleansing agent. Waste water produced from such places get contaminated with different germs, pus, blood, sputum, stool, urine and many chemicals. Waste water produced from such places should not be discharged into the drainage directly. It should be collected separately and treated properly to reduce its hazards on environmental health.

Industries
Water is widely used in industries related to various products. Water is usually used as a solvent, cooling agent or cleansing agent in industries. Waste water from industries contains different chemicals and dissolved or suspended solid particles. Waste water from industries should not be discharged into water bodies or drainage pipes without treating them. The solid wastes are to be filtered and chemicals are to be treated well before discharging.

Agriculture
Water is used for irrigation in agricultural fields. Water runoff from agricultural fields contains soil particles and washed out chemicals which have been used in different forms like insecticides, fertilizers etc. A proper drainage system is to be managed for agricultural runoff. Waste water from agricultural field should be discharged safely far from settlement areas and water resources like well, pond, lakes etc.

Hotel and Lodge
Waste water is also generated in hotels, lodges and restaurants. Waste water from such places mainly contains ash, soap, dust and remains of food beverages. It may lead to unhealthy environment if not managed properly. We need to pass out the waste water from these places to the drain pipers using suitable mechanism.

Residential areas
More amount of waste water is produced from residential areas. Water from kitchen, bathroom, toilet, yard etc. has become a major source of pollution in urban and rural areas. Waste water from residential areas should be properly treated before discharging it. Each and every family must be aware and committed for the collection or discharge or waste water in a fixed place or into the drainage pipes. Provision of reward and punishment also helps in the management of waste water in community.