Nov 102012

The fertility of women can be determined by Mother’s age at menopause, a study has concluded.

Those women whose mothers has an early menopause has fewer eggs in their ovaries than those whose mothers had later menopause.

The women have fewer eggs have fewer chances to conceive.

The study of 527 women aged between 20 and 40, was reported in the journal Human Reproduction.

Researchers used two methods to examine how many eggs the women had – known as their “ovarian reserve” – levels of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC).

“There is no actual test that can accurately determine fertility currently.”

Women are born with all the eggs they will ever have. These are released from the ovary cyclically, usually one every month after puberty, until menopause.

The AFC and AMH give readings doctors an idea of how many yet-to-be released eggs remain in the ovary.

The research also found that both AMH and AFC declined faster in women whose mothers had an early menopause (before the age of 45) in comparison to women whose mothers had a late menopause (after the age of 55).

The average AMH levels declined by 8.6%, 6.8% and 4.2% a year in the groups of women with mothers who had early, normal or late menopause, respectively.

A similar pattern was seen for AFC, with annual declines of 5.8%, 4.7% and 3.2% in the same groups, respectively.

The past research shows that there is about 20 years between a woman’s fertility starting to decline and the onset of menopause. So, a woman who experience menopause at 45 may have experienced a decline in her fertility at the age of 25.

Lead researcher Dr. Janne Bentzen said, “Our findings support the idea that the ovarian reserve is influenced by hereditary factors. However, long-term follow-up studies are required.”

“It doesn’t mean that having fewer eggs will have fewer babies.”

Dr. Valentine Akande, a consultant gynaecologist and spokesman for the British Fertility Society, said the findings were helpful, but that women should not be overly concerned if their mother did have an early menopause.

“There is a huge amount of variation among women. Some will have more eggs and some will have less.”

“Whilst it is assumed that lower egg number is associated with more challenges at getting pregnant this study did not look at that.”

“The advice remains the same – the younger you start trying for a baby the more likely you are to be successful.”

Women are most fertile between the ages of 18 and 31.

Sep 282012

In the present context, the population growth depends upon the norms, values, belief and attitudes of individuals, community and the nation. It relies upon caste, religion, religious and cultural values.

The social values, beliefs and attitudes are the principle, standard and identity of the society. They are interrelated with social culture. These norms and values have made human beings distinct from other creatures of the world. Human beings are identified as male and female in their roles in the social composition. There are many other characters related to them in the society. Each character has been attributed with particular duties and roles. These social norms and values have given the distinct roles to the different characters. They make the society disciplined and well managed.

Population change is caused due to various factors. These factors especially rely upon biological and social processes. The biological process spans from the conception of the baby to death whereas cultural process is inherent in the decisions made about the birth of the child and its rearing process. Human beings for their own identity and existence have protected social values, belief and attitudes.

We will talk here about the different factors of population growth. Religious factors like early marriage, importance given to male child, acceptance of children as the gift of god would be the topics to be discussed here. Similarly, we will also discuss about the effects of women education and employment on population growth. The theoretical framework for it is given below:

The Theoretical Framework of religious belief and social values, norms and attitude in population growthsocial values

In the given theoretical framework, the indicators of religious belief and child marriage, importance of son and children-the gift of god and the indicators of social values, norms and attitude are compositions of family and women education and employment.