Agriculture plays a vital role in the economic and social development of the country. Therefore, agricultural development is necessary in our country. But agricultural development alone cannot bring the required development. Industrial development, too, is as indispensable as agricultural development. So, different types of industries must be established.
Industrial development is the backbone of the country’s progress. It supports economic and social development. But it brings on a number of adverse effects. Some of the effects and measures to check them are given below:
- Utilization of Natural Resources: One of the essential factors to establish and run industries is raw materials from which readymade goods are manufactured. Iron, gold, silver, tin, coal, mineral oil, stone, jute, tobacco, sugar-cane, wood, bamboo etc. are raw materials. Non-renewable raw materials should only be used wisely because they are found in limited quantity. If they are exhausted, they cannot be produced again. It affects the environmental balance. Raw materials produced from forests and agriculture can be used at a large-scale. Nevertheless, renewable raw materials should not be used indiscriminately. When fruits, herbs, flowers are used the plants should not be destroyed. In the deforested places, trees should be planted.
- Pollution: Brick and tile kilns and cement factories give off air-pollutants like carbon dioxide, sulphur oxide, dust, smoke etc. and air is polluted and the physical environment of the surrounding area is spoilt. Factories discharge chemical-mixed water, sewerages carry sewage. They pollute the watersheds. Pollution harms the health of all creatures including man.
- Solid Wastage: Industries produce solid and liquid waste materials. The garbage that leather tanning factories, metal factories and sewerages discharge contain poisonous chemicals. The water that comes from these centres and the dumping site is polluted and makes the environment degraded. Bad smell comes from such places. The aquatic and terrestrial creatures are badly affected. Polluted water is the cause of spreading several kinds of diseases such as diarrhea, typhoid and cholera. Solid wastes emitted from leather and bone industries are harmful to living beings. Water coming from industries should be purified before discharging it into the sources of water.
- Depletion of Ozone Layer: The accretion of sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and dust in the atmosphere depletes the ozone layer which blocks the harmful radiant heat coming from the sun. When the ozone layer is destroyed, the radiant heat reaches the surface of the earth. It disturbs the life-cycle of living beings. It causes dreadful diseases like cataract, skin diseases etc. To reduce this effect, afforestation should be started.
- Excessive Use of Land: Farmers use fertilizers and insecticides excessively to increase their agricultural products. They do so because they want to sell the agricultural products for industry. The uncontrolled use of fertilizers destroys the fertility of the land. The chemicals coming from factories mix with water and cause water pollution. All living beings including man, have to face the adverse effects of polluted water. It is essential to develop the concept of sustainable agricultural production in farmers. It will be helpful to agriculture.
- Change in Temperature: Gases like sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, methane are quite harmful. They pollute the air. The atmosphere is polluted too. One of the harmful effects of these gases is that they increase atmospheric temperature. This change in temperature exerts adverse effects on climate and water cycle. The result is that the environment loses its original quality. Such unhealthy environment is very harmful to human beings, organisms and vegetation. Therefore the emission of such gases should be controlled. For this, modern technology and other appropriate mechanism should be used.
Sound pollution is high in the urban areas and thick settlements. It affects settlements as well as living beings. Smoke, dust, poisonous gas should be controlled by applying low polluting devices.