|In the early 90s, it was easy to keep track of environmental issues related to the property management industry. In the same way transportation system is also being changed and number of automobiles is increasing day by day. In many urban areas the production of liquid and sewage is creating several problems in lack of drainage system. Here in this context, we are going to|
discuss on some of the effective measures for the proper management of industry, transport and drainage.
Management of Industry
Industries provide goods of basic requirements for us. Industrial development is associated with the economic development of the nation. Industries mobilize different associated resources as raw material and at the same time different wastes and pollutants are also produced. Such wastes and pollutants must be managed properly to maintain the environmental quality. As the nature of industry determines the amount of waste or pollutants, different measures are to be adopted for the management of industries in order to conserve the environment. Some of the measures for the management of industries are listed below:
- During the mining of stone, excavation of soil etc. for cement industries, concrete industries etc. care should be taken to minimize the negative impacts. Plantation programme supports to minimize the negative impacts.
- Solid and liquid wastes from the industries must be well managed and discharged after proper processing.
- Industries should be provided with dust and smoke recapturing equipment to minimize the concentration of dust and smoke in air.
- Waste water from industries like carpet, paper, leather, textile, beverage etc. must be treated well before discharging to drainage of water bodies.
- Industries are to be encouraged to use the alternative fuels other than the fossil fuels.
Management of Transportation
Transportation, an essential infrastructure of development, mainly refers to automobiles and is one of the major sources of pollution. Dust, smoke, sound and other wastes emitted from vehicles cause environmental pollution. The transport sector is the largest contributor to total emissions of pollutants in Kathmandu valley. Road traffic crashes result in around 800,000 deaths annually. A disproportionate amount is in developing countries, with the victims often being pedestrians and cyclists. The following measures can be adapted for the management of transportation in order to conserve environment.
- Smoke emission from old vehicles is very high. Such vehicles are to be repaired timely and regularly. Old vehicles are to be replaced by new one as far as practicable.
- Priority should be given to public transportation system rather than the private vehicles.
- Vehicles based on alternative sources of energy like electricity, solar energy etc. should be increased.
- Proper monitoring to check the smoke emission from vehicles should be done and Green Sticker Test is to be followed strictly.
- Pitching of roads also helps to control dust emission during the operation of means of transportation.
- Provision of pure fuel also helps to reduce air pollution.
Proper use of chemical fertilizers
- The use of chemical fertilizers is increasing every day to meet the demand of food of sky rocketing population. No doubt, the use of chemical fertilizers provide required nutrients to the crops and increase the crop yield but its improper or excessive use deteriorates the soil quality. To maintain soil quality and reduce impacts on environment, chemical fertilizers must be used properly.
- Excessive use of chemical fertilizers should not be done. Priority should be given to the use of compost manure.
- Precautions are to be followed to reduce the health hazards while using chemical fertilizers.
- We should mix chemical fertilizers with compost manures.
- Nepalese people keep cattle in their homes so they should be encouraged to use compost manure. They should learn about composting.
Control of Sound
Sound pollution has become a major environmental problem in urban areas. We need to take right steps for its control construction. Activities, increasing traffic pressure, use of high volume equipments during public programmes etc. cause a sound pollution which leads to several health hazards like insomnia, headache, high blood pressure, loss of hearing etc. Some methods to control unwanted sound are listed below:
- Strict prohibition on pressure horn of vehicles.
- Control of unnecessary horn of vehicles.
- Declaration of horn restricted area like hospitals, schools etc.
- Installation of silencers in vehicles and industries.
- Noise control standard for equipments should be set by government.
- Establishment of industries far from residential areas.
- Airports are to be made far from settlement areas.
- Construction of check wall around the industries which produce more noise.
- Unnecessary gathering of people should not be allowed.
Proper use of chemical poisons/ pesticides
Chemical poisons refer to toxic chemical use off for various purposes. Generally, chemical poisons are used by farmers to enhance agricultural production by killing the harmful insects, herbs, fungus, rodents etc. Herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and rodenticides are commonly used chemical poisons in agricultural field and are properly known as pesticides. The improper use of such chemical poisons leads to environmental pollution as well as various health hazards. The following measures are helpful for the proper use of chemical poisons.
- The risk of using pesticides and herbicides is greatest when the directions are not followed exactly. Carefully read product labels, which contain information about the persistence and toxicity of the chemical.
- Always choose a “Pest-specific” pesticide or herbicide that is designed to kill only the pest causing the damage.
- Take precautions to prevent spills. For example, close containers tightly after each use, even if you plan to reopen them soon.
- Know that to do if a spill occurs.
- Mix only the amount needed for the job.
- Follow the directions on the label exactly.
- Avoid spraying over impervious surfaces.
- Do not spray on a windy day.
- Do not apply to bare or eroding soil.
- Do not apply near water systems such as wells, streams and lakes. Reduce cleaning and waste by clustering jobs that use the same solution.
Management of human excreta
Inadequate and unsafe disposal of human faeces can lead to the transmission of faeco-oral disease, can result in the contamination of the ground and water sources and can provide breeding sites for flies which may carry infection. Human excreta and the lack of adequate personal and domestic hygiene have been implicated in the transmission of many infectious diseases including cholera, typhoid, hepatitis, polio, cryptosporidiosis, ascariasis and schistosomiasis. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 2.2 million people die annually from diarrheal disease and that 10% of the population of the developing world is severely infected with intestinal worms related to improper waste and excreta management. Human excreta-transmitted diseases predominantly affect children and the poor. Most of the deaths due to diarrhea occur in children and in developing countries. (WHO 1999)
The introduction of safe excreta disposal can reduce the incidence of intestinal infection and helminthes infestations. Excreta-related communicable diseases include cholera, typhoid, dysentery, diarrhea and hookworm. The likelihood of all these diseases and especially epidemics such as cholera, increases significantly when a population is already displaced or affected by a disaster.
Sewage and its composition
Sewage is the waste water from a community, containing solid and liquid excreta, derived form houses, street and yard washing, factories and industries. Sewage resembles dirty water with an unpleasant smell. The organic matters present in sewage undergo decomposition giving off offensive odors. Sewage is even charged with numerous micro-organisms derived from faeces like E. coli, streptococci etc.
Sewage contains majority of water (99.9%) and very less amount of solid content. Sewage basically contains human excreta, soapy wastes, food wastes, inorganic substances like nitrates and phosphates of detergents, organic substances like fat, carbohydrates, etc., living organisms like bacteria, protozoa etc. and many more.