Aug 232012
 

Various Cultural Practices of Marriage
Since Nepal is a country with different races and ethnic groups, varieties of marriage arrangements are found to be prevalent based on locality, traditions, customs and cultures.

Some of the prevalent marriage arrangements are listed below:

  • Marriage made by giving the beetle nut (Supari Bibaha): Marriage is be arranged by providing girl’s party with the beetle nut (supari) by boy’s party for confirmation of marriage.
  • Marriage by request (Magi bibaha): Marriage is arranged by asking with humble request made by boy’s or girl’s party.
  • Levirate Marriage (Bhahuju Behorne Bibaha): A marriage custom in which brother-in-law accepts a widow sister-in-law as his wife after the death of his own brother. In other words, it is a marriage custom which requires a widow sister-in-law to marry the younger brother (dewar) of her husband.
  • Marriage by taking away secretly or elopement (Chori Bibaha): It is a marriage by taking away secretly without consent of guardians either by boy’s or by girl’s party.
  • Widow Marriage (Bidhawa Bibaha): This is such a marriage which is arranged voluntarily by a widow after the death of her husband.
  • Marriage by performance (Gandharva Bibaha): It is a marriage to be arranged by performing extra ordinary activities and skills during social celebration, festivals, musical nights and cultivation or harvesting season.
  • Marriage by paying fine (Jari Bibaha): It is a marriage to be arranged by paying the necessary amount of money for taking away other’s wife.

 Legal Provision for Marriage

There are some legal provisions for marriage arrangement. Some marriage practices are accepted by law whereas some others are not.

The followings are the types of marriage on the basis of legal provision:

  • Void Marriage: Marriage should be arranged by both boy’s and girls’ agreement. If it is arranged without the consent of either of one party, it is voided.
  • Voidable Marriage: Marriage can be voided if the boys and the girls have been married before they are 16 years of age.
  • Punishable Marriage: Marriage is punishable if it is arranged among the kins whether it is done voluntarily or unwillingly.
  • Legal Marriage: The marriage arranged according to traditions, customs and cultures in proper age for it of both the party is known as legal marriage. The prevalent laws of nation determine all such marriages. The legal act of Nepal has given permission to arrange in any type of traditional marriage according to culture and customs. But the law has neither defined the marriage nor determined any system in accordance with culture, religion and belief. After the initiation of “Marriage Restriction Act”, marriage according to religion, caste and tradition and not opposing the rules laid down by this act can be registered in the registration office.

 On the basis of Number of Spouse/ Forms of Marriage

The various forms of marriage are described below:

  • Monogamy: Union of one man and one woman. This form of marriage allows a man to marry only one woman at a given time. The practice is well accepted worldwide because of its advantages. In Nepal, monogamy is the accepted legal form of marriage.
  • Polygamy: One person marries two or more persons of the opposite sex at the same time. This is commonly known as multiple marriages.
Jun 042012
 

Nepal is a country which has a very long history. It has been ruled by many rulers which belonged to different tribes. Some tribes of rulers who ruled over Nepal are Kirant, Lichchhavi etc. Among those tribes, Malla is also a tribe which brought out many changes in the structure of Nepal. It is the dynasty when Nepal got developed to some extent due to art, architecture etc. So, the reign of Mallas is a also known as the Golden Period of Nepal. The Mallas created many infrastructures in Nepal during their regime. The even constructed many temples, statues, palaces etc. in different places including Kathmandu (Kantipur), Bhaktapur (Bhadgaon) and Lalitpur (Patan). They constructed Durbars (Palaces) in those places which covered a large area. The descriptions of the Durbar (Palace) Areas of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur are given below:

1. Kathmandu Durbar Area: Kathmandu Durbar Square is one of the Durbar Areas which are situated in Nepal. This Durbar Square was constructed by the Malla Kings during their regime. The Kathmandu Durbar Area is a beautiful place which is full of beautiful, ancient and cultural crafts, drawing and handicrafts etc. This place contains a famous palace which was the residence of ancient Nepalese Kings. There is a temple named Kasthamandap in this place. It is said that this temple is constructed by using only one tree. Kathmandu has got its name after Kasthamandap. The pleasant and beautiful gate of Lord Hanuman (Hanuman Dhoka) can also be found here. Due to this same reason, this Durbar Area is also known as Hanuman Dhoka Durbar Area. Likewise, we can find the temples of Goddess Taleju, Lord Hanuman, Goddess Kumari (Living Goddess), Lord Shiva and Goddess Parwati, Lord Ganesh etc. Similarly, the place for coronation of new Kings can also be found here. This place was used to organize the coronation ceremony of new kings of Nepal.

2. Bhaktapur Durbar Area: The Bhaktapur Durbar Area is situated in the smallest district of Nepal, Bhaktapur. Though this plaza is located in the smallest district of Nepal, it is not small in its area. It is even more beautiful than other Durbar Areas of Nepal. This Durbar Area is well-preserved and well-promoted than the other Durbar Areas of Nepal. This place contains the Taleju temple, Pashupatinath temple, Dwarikanath temple, Krishna temple etc. The main attraction of this area is the Fifty Five Windowed Palace and the Golden Gate. In front of the palace and the golden gate, there is a pillar which contains the statue of Malla King Bhupatindra Malla. There is a temple called the five storied temple (Nyatapola) near to this area. Everyday thousands of tourists visit this place for sightseeing. Likewise, a museum is also located here in which the ancient structures, statues, arts and pictures etc. are preserved and displayed. It is even said that, this place contains altogether 99 courtyards (chowk) due to which this place is even known as the 99 chowk.

3. Lalitpur Durbar Area: Lalitpur Durbar Area is one of the excellent examples of artwork by the Nepalese architectures and craftsmen. This place contains different temples, statues, crafts etc. which represent the ancient Nepalese art and architecture. The monasteries, the temple of Rato Machhindra Nath etc. add beauty to this area. Likwise the famous temple of Lord Krishna also attracts the people towards this place. The main attraction of this place is the Palace which is very much beautiful. This palace displays the lifestyle of the Kings of the ancient Nepal. This place contains architectures which have windows made of elephant bones (hides), the statue of King Yog Narendra Malla, Taleju temple, stone taps and ponds etc. This place is situated at the heart of Lalitpur city. Like the Bhaktapur Durbar Area this area consists of three courtyardds namely the Central Mulchowk, Sundari Chowk and Keshav Narayan Chowk.