Biodiversity conservation is the conservation of all living beings-large or small. This conservation includes the conservation of their habitat, heredity and ecosystem. It will increase their number and quality. Favorable environment is necessary for it. The reasons why biodiversity conservation is necessary are given below:
- Protection of Existence of Living Beings: There are innumerable living beings on the earth. In Nepal, animals, birds and organisms of one geographical region are different from those in another region. They are important wealth of nature. It is the duty of people to protect them. Conservation of biodiversity is necessary to ensure their existence and improve their heredity. Biodiversity conservation is essential for the future generations too.
- Sustainability of Resources: Biodiversity is the source of products from agriculture, animals and medicinal herbs. People get what are necessary for their life. It is difficult to survive without these things. Therefore, it is necessary to make a wise use of biodiversity with its proper conservation.
- Promotion of Natural Scene: Vegetation, animals, birds and other creatures have in fact, ornamented the land topography. Suitable environment has been created on the earth for the living beings. People do not have to spend money to build natural scene but they can utilize the natural gift by conserving it. It helps the development of tourism. People get employment. Economic development of the country can be achieved by developing and making proper management of biodiversity. It can help the present and future generations to maintain their life.
- Balance in Natural Process: Water-cycle, weather, variation in temperature, carbon-cycle and oxygen-cycle are the processes which always occur in nature. They are affected by human activities. Nature tries to maintain them without any effects. Activities like birth and death of living beings, their decay and rotting are going on in the natural ecosystem. Trees, plants, animals, birds, microbes help in the operation of these activities. Human life too is associated with natural activities. If biodiversity is not conserved, there will be adverse effect on the natural process as well as on living beings. On the contrary, the conservation of biodiversity contributes to the operation of natural process.
- Socio-Economic Development: Biodiversity provides materials that are used for different purposes like food, clothes, industry, etc. These materials can be used for economic and social development. We celebrate many social and cultural festivals, functions, and customs. We obtain things for these activities from biological sources like flowers, colors, incenses etc. So it is essential to conserve biological diversity to continue economic, social and industrial activities.
- Study and Research Area: Biodiversity is a wide area for study and research. Natural sources and organisms should be discovered and studied and then they should be conserved and promoted. The result can be used for the welfare of human beings. Biodiversity conservation will help to develop the existence of living beings including man.