Jan 232014
 

With the cases of new diseases being reported, the demand for antigen for immunization against them has been growing. While there are 27 types of vaccines available worldwide, Nepalese get only ten antigens, exposing them to serious health threats.

The multi-year immunization programme endorsed by the Ministry of Health and Population has targeted to add four more basic vaccines to its vault by 2016.

These include Pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination which are remedies to pneumonia and diarrhoea, respectively.

However, the major challenge for the stakeholders is the cost that will swell after additional vaccines are introduced. At present, over 60 percent of the total immunization cost is born by donors while the government share of the expenditure is limited to 40 percent.

The government has made efforts to explore alternatives for the financial sustainability of the expanded immunization programme. As an initiative, the government is working on creating the Immunization Trust Fund (ITF), which will raise funds from the government, donors and corporate agencies.

Recently, the Ministry of Health and Population endorsed a regulation to initiate the process for setting up the fund. “It’s the duty of the government to maintain the ongoing immunization programme with its own might. We may not always get support from donor organizations,” said Dr. Shyam Upreti, the chief of the Immunization Division under the Department of Health. Therefore, the fund will be used as a sustainable source for financing the immunization programme in the coming day.s

After the ITF comes to effect, there will be one-door policy for the immunization programme. The Interim Constitution guarantees people’s right to health and immunization.

According to Upreti, various internationally tested vaccines have not been adopted in Nepal due to the lack of adequate funds. The vaccines being used in the country target children, with no measures for the immunization of elderly people. The annual cost of immunization at present is Rs. 1.6 billion – Rs. 3,000 per child. It will increase significantly with the introduction of four new antigens possibly by 2016.

Immunization has a pivotal role in reducing under-five mortality to 38 and infant deaths to 32 per 1,000 live births by 2015, as envisioned by the Millennium Development Goals in Health.

Jun 212013
 

Airborne diseases are the diseases which are caused due to the viruses present in the air. Common cold is a good example of airborne diseases. Common cold is easily and highly communicable disease as it can rapidly get transmitted from one person to another. Therefore, almost everybody gets affected by it. It is caused by Rhino virus. It affects nose, throat, chest and many other parts of our body. When the patient sneezes or coughs, the viruses are spread in the air through the droplets. When we inhale the contaminated air, we get infected by it. Similarly, the infected utensils, handkerchiefs etc. are the modes of transmission of this disease.

Symptoms of Common Cold

The symptoms of common cold are listed below:

  • At first, irritation occurs in nose and throat.
  • Nose and neck become dry and the patients coughs slightly.
  • Watery nasal discharge occurs.
  • Running nose occurs and smelling capacity is lost.
  • The voice becomes hoarse and headache and fever occurs sometimes.
  • Eyes become wet.

Preventive Measures of Common Cold

  • Common use of handkerchief, towel and utensils used by the patient should be avoided. If it is not possible, they should be used by washing them with soap and water.
  • Clothes should be worn according to the weather.
  • Patient should use handkerchief while sneezing or coughing.
  • Green vegetables should be eaten regularly.
  • Patient should take enough liquid matter and s/he should take rest.
  • Inhaling water-vapour is a homemade remedy for common cold.