Theo Haimann, one of the leading management experts, has explained three basic concepts of management as:
- Management as a process.
- Management as a discipline.
- Management as a noun.
- Management as a process: Management is a process. It includes the processes of planning, controlling, coordinating, motivating and staffing. These processes are the series of interrelated sequential functions. The processes are carried on to accomplish the goal. Management refers to the joint effort of organizational members to accomplish the organizer’s objectives. This concept is very simple because:
- It is easy to understand.
- It indicates functions of management as a process.
- It recognizes management as a universal process.
- Management as a discipline: The term management is used as a subject of instructions. It is a specific branch of knowledge which is studied in campuses and schools like economics, sociology, mathematics, political science etc. The scholars of management have found that information and management are useful in practical life for better functioning. The scope of management is being increased day to day as a discipline.
- Management as a noun: The word management itself is a noun. There are many kinds of employees in an organization. Some people are involved in managerial function and some are involved in operating functions. The individuals who manage the organization and departments are managers. As a noun, the term management is used as single name of managers, board of directors, managing directors, departmental managers etc.
This is how Haimann has made it easier to understand the true meaning and significance of management. Now, let us take a look at Angelo Kinicki and Brian K. Williams’ definition of management. They have defined management as “the pursuit of organizational goals efficiently and effectively by integrating the work of people through planning, organizing, leading and controlling the organization’s resources.”
Let us note the words, efficiently and effectively, which basically mean “doing things right.”
- Efficiency (the means): Efficiency is the means of attaining the organization’s goals. To be efficient means to use the resources – people, money, raw materials, and the like – wisely and cost-effectively.
- Effectiveness (the ends): Effectiveness is the organization’s ends, the goals.
To be effective means to achieve results, to make the right decisions and to successfully carry them out so that they achieve the organization’s goals.
Good managers are concerned with trying to achieve both qualities. Often, however, organizations will erroneously strive for efficiency without being effective.