Mar 062013

african-lionafrican lionA report from Washington said that over next 20-40 years, nearly half of Africa’s wild lion populations may decline if the urgent conservation measures are taken.

The report entitled “Conserving large carnivores: dollars and fence” which has been recently published in the scientific Ecology Letters, said that the situation of many lion populations is so worse which is very difficult to recover. The report also concludes that fencing them in, and fencing humans out, may be their only hope for survival.

The report has been prepared by the University of Minnesota’s Professor Craig Packer and co-authored by a large team of lion biologists, including Panthera’s President, Dr. Luke Hunter, and Lion Program Director, Dr. Guy Balme.

Craig Packer, who is the advisor on Panthera’s Cat Advisory Council said, “it is clear that fences work and unfenced populations are extremely expensive to maintain.

The report also proved that there is significant increase in lion population sizes and densities in reserves secured by wildlife-proof fences compared to unfenced ecosystems. Meanwhile such conservation costs are also lowered.

Those populations which are in unfenced reserves were subject to a higher degree of threats from human communities including retaliatory killing by herders, habitat loss and fragmentation and over hunting of lion prey.

It is very necessary to separate lion and human population for the survival. For that, fencing or some alternative physical boundary such as intensely managed buffer zones should be made.

According to the report, at present, it is estimated that fewer than 30,000 lions remain in Africa in just 25 percent of the species’ original natural habitat.

May 152012

Men utilize various resources available in environment. Various developmental activities are conducted in the country. Industries, hydroelectricity, irrigation, road etc. are the developmental activities. By them we get various services and facilities. It is necessary to conduct such activities to improve the standard of living. Man should not degrade the environment while conducting developmental activities and utilizing environmental resources.

Government of Nepal is conducting various programmes on environmental conservation through its various Ministries. Local agencies like Municipality, Village Development Committee, District Development Committee are also conducting various activities on environmental conservation at local level. Various rules and regulations, act and laws etc. have also been formulated. Those legal provisions also support for environmental conservation. Various NGOs and INGOs are also involved in environmental conservation activities. These various types of programmes and activities have also contributed to the conservation of environment. To conserve the environment is the responsibility of all of us. It is necessary to continue the efforts of various sectors for environmental conservation. Some efforts on environmental conservation are mentioned below:

a)      Conservation of Forest

Conservation of forest plays significant role for environmental conservation. Forest conservation activities have been conducted by Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation. In addition, community forest programmes have also been conducted. Afforestation and the protection are done for forest conservation. Various rules and regulations have been enacted for forest conservation. Subject-matters of forest conservation have been included in curriculum and textbooks of school and college and in training programmes. These programmes contribute to environmental conservation.

b)      Soil conservation

One of the major functions of environment management and conservation is to conserve soil. Soil can be conserved by controlling flood, landslide and soil erosion. Similarly, conservation of pasture land, afforestation in barren land and conservation of forest contribute to soil conservation. Sloped land must be cultivated in terrace. Organic fertilizer should also be used with chemical fertilizer. Such activities are also conducted by Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Ministry of Agriculture etc. Subject-matter on soil conservation are also included in the curriculum of school and campus level. It supports for environmental protection by increasing the awareness among young students who are future responsible citizens. So, various such activities also contribute to conserve the environment.

c)       Solid waste management

House, industries, markets are the sources of solid waste. Solid waste management contributes environmental conservation. Local bodies like municipalities, VDCs are working for managing solid waste. We should also contribute in this campaign. Every household must have toilet. We should make public toilets. Passing urine and stool openly causes the environment polluted. Therefore, proper disposal of solid waste should be managed. It helps to make the environment clean and conserve it.

d)      Control of pollution

If we control the smoke and dust from means of transportation and factories, air pollution can be controlled. Government is trying to control such pollution. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides, wastage disposal, cause water pollution. If we control the pollution, it helps to control the environment. Therefore, the subject-matter about pollution has been included in the curriculum of school, campus and training programmes. All such efforts help to conserve the environment.