|Human beings use natural resources like land, water, minerals while conducting construction works, namely, drainage, canal, road etc. The activities like formation of new machines, experiments and research always go on. Various human activities adversely affects on biodiversity. People should play vital role on reducing such adverse effects and conservation of living beings.|
The adverse effects on biodiversity and the methods to mitigate them may differ from place to place because of different geographical regions. There may be some similarity. Some measures to mitigate the effects are given below:
1. Degradation of Ecosystem
There are different types of living beings in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Cattle, birds, insects, plants and trees grow in the terrestrial ecosystem while fish, some insects, small plants live in the aquatic ecosystem. The terrestrial ecosystem is degraded due to forest fire, destruction of the forest, use of insecticides and pesticides and construction of work. Aquatic ecosystem is spoil by falling stones and soil when construction work is done and by explosions. Adverse effects on water is caused when sewage mixes with water sources. Thus, the living beings both on land and in water are affected. Large mammals like tiger, elephant, rhinoceros etc. require enough physical surroundings for their maintenance. But on account of degraded ecosystem, there is shortage of space for the living beings.
2. Loss of Habitat
Habitat plays a significant role in retaining biodiversity. Natural habitat is ruined because of human activities like construction work, expansion of agricultural work, excessive use of chemicals, destruction of forest etc. As a result, animal’s habitat, food-cycle, climate and reproduction progress are badly affected. The numerical growth of living beings and their life-style are hampered, and so there is decline in the ecosystem. Due to the loss of the habitat, there is struggle among the species for food and shelter. Consequently, the number of incompetent vegetation, animals and birds go on decreasing. Eventually many living beings vanish. Human beings too are affected.
It is wise to destroy the natural habitat while conducting development construction and human activities. The activities which has been destroyed should be restored. For example, trees should be planted in bare and uncultivated places. This will create the natural habitat for the living beings. Rivers, rivulets and other water resources should not be filled. They should be protected from filling stone and mud. Those places should be restored to the former natural forms.
3. Loss of Mobility
The deterioration of the natural environment causes the loss of mobility of animals and birds. The causes of the deterioration of the environment are the destruction of the forest, expansion of agricultural land and urbanization. All these factors limit the space for the animals and birds for roaming. That is why, the natural environment for the animals like tiger, elephant, deer, bird has diminished. In this situation, they have to stay within a limit area. So, people should not ruin the natural environment if they want to conserve the animals and birds. We should try to make the dry and uncultivated land suitable for the habitat of animals.
4. Limitation of Expansion of Vegetation
Land for cultivation is extended due to population growth. Various types of development and construction work are continuing. Similarly, settlement areas are expanding and urbanization is taking place. Grazing land is declining in size. These activities are causing loss to the forest, vegetation, herbs etc. Because of these unsuitable effects, biodiversity is degrading. People should grow trees in the surrounding of their houses, either side of the road and bare fields. Pasture lands should not be damaged. Grass should be grown in the barren place for the cattle. Thus, the greenery can be increased.