Sep 072012

Migration affects both the place of origin and of destination. It affects in various aspects of the society. It affects the distribution and growth of population. As people migrate from one place to another in large number, the population increases in the destination area but the population of the place of origin decreases. So, by means of the process of migration, there appear the changes in the distribution of population and this change causes further change in various fields of development. In Nepal, migration itself has been a problems arising from migration have been equally challenging for the government. At present, migration from the mountains and hills to the Terai and migration from villages to the towns and cities have been two trends of migration in Nepal. For the last few years, great majority of Nepalese youths have developed a trend to go to foreign countries for the sake of employment. In this way, migration has affected both the place of origin and of destination places in several ways. Particularly from the system of migration, the following effects can be seen:

  • Change in the size: When people migrate from one place to another in large number, the population increases in the destination area but the population decreases in the place of origin. The number of youths increase in the destination area and more youths come there from many places. They are inspired to get marriage. It increases the number of children.
  • Change in age composition: Generally, youths and active population migrate from one place to another place. Thus, the number of active population decreases in the original place. It creates change in the age composition.
  • Change in country’s development: The growth and development of any country is affected by its status of migration. Usually youths, active manpower, educated and active male migrate from one place to another place which decreases the number of active people in the original place that makes development work difficult there. On the other hand, it increases the number of active manpower in the destination area which helps to run the developmental activities in the area. In the context of Nepal, there is a high trend of migration from hilly region and mountain region to Terai. The land of hilly and mountain areas remain barren as there are no people to cultivate. It has caused low production. On the other hand, due to the overflow of population in the urban areas and the Terai region, so many adverse effects have appeared in economic, social, cultural and environmental aspects of these areas. High migration has created the problem of drinking water, transportation, electricity, quality education and so on in these destination areas.

Measures for controlling migration

In Nepal, migration itself has been a problem and the problem arising from the migration have been equally challenging to the government. It should be checked in time otherwise it would bring many serious types of problems in the country. The following measures can be applied to control the migration to some extent:

  • Development activities should be carried out to involve youths in their own place.
  • Drinking water, transport, electricity, schools and other facilities should be well managed.
  • Schools for the children should be established.
  • Health services should be made available in each and every corner of the country.
  • Different development projects should be launched to increase job opportunity.
  • Infrastructure of development should be made available in remote areas of the nation.
  • The distribution and pressure of population should be balanced.
  • There should be the provision of fulfillment of basic needs for the common people.
  • Systematic urbanization should be there to check the unmanaged urbanization.
  • There should be sustainable development for long lasting effects.
Aug 302012

The term migration refers to the movement of people from one place to another place. Moving from place where one gets birth and is brought up to another place of the same country is the internal migration. The trend of internal migration is rapidly increasing in Nepal day by day. Most of the people of mountain and hilly regions are moving towards Terai and urban areas. Reasons behind it are the

extreme physical topography, less productive area, unbearable climate, the scarcity of job opportunity and so on. Similarly, people are leaving their original place and going towards other areas in search of basic needs like food, shelter, education, health services and other needs.

The movement of people from one country to another country is external migration. It causes a great change in size of population of both countries. In Nepal, the size of population is increasing due to the flow of people from other countries especially from India and Bhutan. External migration rate can be calculated by deducting the number of immigrants from the number of emigrants. At present, the rate of internal migration is higher than the external migration since many people are entering into Nepal from India in search of jobs and from Bhutan as refugees. It has directly affected social, physical and cultural aspects of Nepal.

Types of migration

There are two types of migration. They are described below:

a. Internal Migration: Migration that takes place within the same country is called internal migration. In the context of Nepal, people from the mountains and hilly region migrate to the Terai region. People also migrate from the villages to the town and cities. It affects the distribution and growth of population. It changes the total number of population of the particular place.

b. External or International Migration: Movement of people from one country to another country is called external or international migration. It affects the total population and distribution of population.

External migration is further divided into two types:

a. Immigration: The coming of people from another country to host country is called immigration.

b. Emigration: Movement of people from their native country to another country is called emigration. Many Nepalese are migrating to other countries for higher education, employment, tour, industrial and trade motives.

Causes of Migration

There are different causes of migration sometimes even complex factors cause migration. The causes of migration are divided as pull and push factors.

  • Pull factors: People leave their original place when there is the scarcity of food, education, health services, sources of entertainment, job opportunities etc. They migrate to such places where they get such facilities. These come under pull factors.
  • Push factors: People migrate from one place to another place due to the lack of job opportunities, food, health services, education etc. They migrate towards such place where they find the facilities, which they need. Thus, the scarcity of various facilities of original place is the push factor. Apart from the above factors, people are found to migrate to such places where their kin as well as good neighbors stay. Some people migrate due to their job as well.