|The term migration refers to the movement of people from one place to another place. Moving from place where one gets birth and is brought up to another place of the same country is the internal migration. The trend of internal migration is rapidly increasing in Nepal day by day. Most of the people of mountain and hilly regions are moving towards Terai and urban areas. Reasons behind it are the|
extreme physical topography, less productive area, unbearable climate, the scarcity of job opportunity and so on. Similarly, people are leaving their original place and going towards other areas in search of basic needs like food, shelter, education, health services and other needs.
The movement of people from one country to another country is external migration. It causes a great change in size of population of both countries. In Nepal, the size of population is increasing due to the flow of people from other countries especially from India and Bhutan. External migration rate can be calculated by deducting the number of immigrants from the number of emigrants. At present, the rate of internal migration is higher than the external migration since many people are entering into Nepal from India in search of jobs and from Bhutan as refugees. It has directly affected social, physical and cultural aspects of Nepal.
Types of migration
There are two types of migration. They are described below:
a. Internal Migration: Migration that takes place within the same country is called internal migration. In the context of Nepal, people from the mountains and hilly region migrate to the Terai region. People also migrate from the villages to the town and cities. It affects the distribution and growth of population. It changes the total number of population of the particular place.
b. External or International Migration: Movement of people from one country to another country is called external or international migration. It affects the total population and distribution of population.
External migration is further divided into two types:
a. Immigration: The coming of people from another country to host country is called immigration.
b. Emigration: Movement of people from their native country to another country is called emigration. Many Nepalese are migrating to other countries for higher education, employment, tour, industrial and trade motives.
Causes of Migration
There are different causes of migration sometimes even complex factors cause migration. The causes of migration are divided as pull and push factors.
- Pull factors: People leave their original place when there is the scarcity of food, education, health services, sources of entertainment, job opportunities etc. They migrate to such places where they get such facilities. These come under pull factors.
- Push factors: People migrate from one place to another place due to the lack of job opportunities, food, health services, education etc. They migrate towards such place where they find the facilities, which they need. Thus, the scarcity of various facilities of original place is the push factor. Apart from the above factors, people are found to migrate to such places where their kin as well as good neighbors stay. Some people migrate due to their job as well.