Migration affects both the place of origin and of destination. It affects in various aspects of the society. It affects the distribution and growth of population. As people migrate from one place to another in large number, the population increases in the destination area but the population of the place of origin decreases. So, by means of the process of migration, there appear the changes in the distribution of population and this change causes further change in various fields of development. In Nepal, migration itself has been a problems arising from migration have been equally challenging for the government. At present, migration from the mountains and hills to the Terai and migration from villages to the towns and cities have been two trends of migration in Nepal. For the last few years, great majority of Nepalese youths have developed a trend to go to foreign countries for the sake of employment. In this way, migration has affected both the place of origin and of destination places in several ways. Particularly from the system of migration, the following effects can be seen:
- Change in the size: When people migrate from one place to another in large number, the population increases in the destination area but the population decreases in the place of origin. The number of youths increase in the destination area and more youths come there from many places. They are inspired to get marriage. It increases the number of children.
- Change in age composition: Generally, youths and active population migrate from one place to another place. Thus, the number of active population decreases in the original place. It creates change in the age composition.
- Change in country’s development: The growth and development of any country is affected by its status of migration. Usually youths, active manpower, educated and active male migrate from one place to another place which decreases the number of active people in the original place that makes development work difficult there. On the other hand, it increases the number of active manpower in the destination area which helps to run the developmental activities in the area. In the context of Nepal, there is a high trend of migration from hilly region and mountain region to Terai. The land of hilly and mountain areas remain barren as there are no people to cultivate. It has caused low production. On the other hand, due to the overflow of population in the urban areas and the Terai region, so many adverse effects have appeared in economic, social, cultural and environmental aspects of these areas. High migration has created the problem of drinking water, transportation, electricity, quality education and so on in these destination areas.
Measures for controlling migration
In Nepal, migration itself has been a problem and the problem arising from the migration have been equally challenging to the government. It should be checked in time otherwise it would bring many serious types of problems in the country. The following measures can be applied to control the migration to some extent:
- Development activities should be carried out to involve youths in their own place.
- Drinking water, transport, electricity, schools and other facilities should be well managed.
- Schools for the children should be established.
- Health services should be made available in each and every corner of the country.
- Different development projects should be launched to increase job opportunity.
- Infrastructure of development should be made available in remote areas of the nation.
- The distribution and pressure of population should be balanced.
- There should be the provision of fulfillment of basic needs for the common people.
- Systematic urbanization should be there to check the unmanaged urbanization.
- There should be sustainable development for long lasting effects.